X appeared to be unaffected by Y. Only trace amounts of X were detected in … There was no evidence that X has an influence on … The Chi-square test did not show any significant differences between … Overall, X did not affect males and females differently in these measures. A clear benefit of X in the prevention of Y could not be identified in this analysis. T-tests found no significant differences in mean scores on the X and Y subscales.
Reporting positive and negative reactions. When X cells were stimulated with Y, no significant difference in the number of Z was detected. Highlighting interesting or surprising results. Interestingly, the X was observed to … This result is somewhat counterintuitive. Interestingly, this correlation is related to … The more surprising correlation is with the … Surprisingly, only a minority of respondents … The most surprising aspect of the data is in the … The correlation between X and Y is interesting because … The most striking result to emerge from the data is that … Interestingly, there were also differences in the ratios of … The single most striking observation to emerge from the data comparison was ….
Surveys and interviews: Reporting response rates. The overall response to the survey was poor. Thirty-two individuals returned the questionnaires. Of the study population, 90 subjects completed and returned the questionnaire. Of patients who were sent invitations, 81 returned the reply slip, of whom 60 agreed to … By the end of the survey period, data had been collected from 64 individuals, 23 of whom were ….
This section of the questionnaire required respondents to give information on … Surveys and interviews: Reporting proportions. Surveys and interviews: Reporting themes. Another reported problem was … Opinions differed as to whether … Concerns were expressed about … A number of issues were identified … A variety of perspectives were expressed … These views surfaced mainly in relation to … Concerns regarding X were more widespread.
There was a sense of X amongst interviewees. Five broad themes emerged from the analysis. A common view amongst interviewees was that … One concern expressed regarding X was whether … This theme came up for example in discussions of … The themes of X and Y recurred throughout the dataset. Two divergent and often conflicting discourses emerged … Two discrete reasons emerged from this. First … Second … Issues related to X were not particularly prominent in the interview data.
A recurrent theme in the interviews was a sense amongst interviewees that …. It was suggested that … One interviewee argued that … There were some suggestions that … In all cases, the informants reported that … In their accounts of the events surrounding … There were some negative comments about … The participants on the whole demonstrated … Some felt that … , while others considered that … Some interviewees argued that … , while others … This view was echoed by another informant who..
Whilst a minority mentioned that…, all agreed that… Only a small number of respondents indicated that … A small number of those interviewed suggested that …. For a small number of participants X was the reason for … The majority of participants agreed with the statement that … When asked about X, the participants were unanimous in the view that …. Surveys and interviews: Introducing excerpts. Transition: moving to the next result. If we now turn to … A comparison of the two results reveals … Turning now to the experimental evidence on … Comparing the two results, it can be seen that … The next section of the survey was concerned with … In the final part of the survey, respondents were asked ….
Summarising the results section. These results suggest that … Overall, these results indicate that … In summary, these results show that … In summary, for the informants in this study, … Together these results provide important insights into … Taken together, these results suggest that there is an association between … The results in this chapter indicate that … The next chapter, therefore, moves on to discuss the …. All rights reserved. Home ». The standard approach to this section of a research article or dissertation is to present and describe the results in a systematic and detailed way.
Conversely, every method should also have some results given so, if you choose to exclude certain experiments from the results, make sure that you remove mention of the method as well. If you are unsure whether to include certain results, go back to your research questions and decide whether the results are relevant to them. If they are relevant, you should include them. Having decided what to include, next decide what order to use. You also need to consider how best to present your results: tables, figures, graphs, or text.
Try to use a variety of different methods of presentation, and consider your reader: 20 pages of dense tables are hard to understand, as are five pages of graphs, but a single table and well-chosen graph that illustrate your overall findings will make things much clearer. Make sure that each table and figure has a number and a title. Number tables and figures in separate lists, but consecutively by the order in which you mention them in the text.
Summarise your results in the text, drawing on the figures and tables to illustrate your points. The text and figures should be complementary, not repeat the same information. You should refer to every table or figure in the text. Make sure that you including information about the size and direction of any changes, including percentage change if appropriate. Statistical tests should include details of p values or confidence intervals and limits.
You will, almost inevitably, find that you need to include some slight discussion of your results during this section. See our pages: Analysing Qualitative Data and Simple Statistical Analysis for more information on analysing your results. The discussion section therefore needs to review your findings in the context of the literature and the existing knowledge about the subject.
You also need to demonstrate that you understand the limitations of your research and the implications of your findings for policy and practice. This section should be written in the present tense. The Discussion section needs to follow from your results and relate back to your literature review. Make sure that everything you discuss is covered in the results section. Most people are likely to write this section best by preparing an outline, setting out the broad thrust of the argument, and how your results support it.
You may find techniques like mind mapping are helpful in making a first outline; check out our page: Creative Thinking for some ideas about how to think through your ideas. You should start by referring back to your research questions, discuss your results, then set them into the context of the literature, and then into broader theory. Once you have your outline in front of you, you can start to map out how your results fit into the outline.
This will help you to see whether your results are over-focused in one area, which is why writing up your research as you go along can be a helpful process. For each theme or area, you should discuss how the results help to answer your research question, and whether the results are consistent with your expectations and the literature.
They will only confuse the reader and will hide the importance of your message. It is difficult to create a perfect piece of writing, but you should try to make your readers distinguish between facts and speculation. Now you know how to write a discussion paper. We hope that our article inspired you to start writing your paper. You can always find a dissertation discussion example and see its structure.
You cannot write a great thesis without using a large body of literature. Every claim you make must be supported with credible and verifiable information. The data you provide in these sections will either support or nullify your hypotheses or assumptions.
In either case, these results will inform the direction of future research activities. Consider the requirements for your thesis and ask your thesis supervisor for more detail if you are not sure how much space your discussion and analysis chapter must take. Begin the section with the strongest evidence that either supports or refutes your thesis.
If you have any doubts, ask for help, and we will be happy to provide you with sufficient evidence to support your conclusions. While working on the analysis and discussion chapters of your project, we will adhere to the rules and requirements provided by your supervisor. We will consider the terms and technical vocabulary that must be used in the body of your thesis.
We try not to overload discussions with too many technical words so that your reader could understand your conclusions. Otherwise, we will include a glossary of terms to explain the meaning of the most complicated words.
With our writers, you will not have any trouble submitting a perfect thesis on time! How to Write a Discussion Analysis Chapter in a Thesis Discussion and analysis are probably the most critical components of any thesis. Place New Order.
Type of assignment. Writer level. These terms are more suitable for the discussion chapter , where you will be expected to provide your interpretation of the results in detail. Only provide a brief explanation of findings in relations to the key themes, hypothesis and research questions.
Make sure you are not presenting results from other research studies in your findings. Observe whether or not your hypothesis is tested or research questions answered. Illustrations and tables are used to present data, and they are labelled to help your readers understand what they relate to. The dissertation findings chapter should provide the context for understanding the results. The research problem should be repeated, and the goals of the research stated briefly. This approach helps to gain the attention of the reader towards the research problem.
The first step towards writing the findings is to identify which results will be presented in this section. The results relevant to the questions must be presented, keeping in mind whether the results support the hypothesis. You do not need to include every result in the findings section. The next step is to ensure that the data can be appropriately organised and accurately.
You will need to have a basic idea about writing the findings of a dissertation because this will provide you with the knowledge to arrange the data in a chronological manner. Start each paragraph by writing about the most important results and concluding the section with the least important results.
A short paragraph can conclude the findings section, which summarises the findings so readers will remember as they transition to the next chapter. This is an important step if findings are unexpected or unfamiliar or impact the study. Our writers can help you with all parts of your dissertation, including statistical analysis of your results. To obtain free non-binding quotes, please complete our online quote form here. When crafting your findings, it is important to know how you will organize the work.
The findings are the story that needs to be told in response to the research questions that have been answered. Therefore, the story needs to be organised so that it makes sense to you and the reader. The findings must be compelling and responsive to be linked to the research questions being answered.
Always ensure that the size and direction of any changes, including percentage change, can be mentioned in the section. The details of p values or confidence intervals and limits should be included. The findings sections only have the relevant parts of the primary evidence mentioned.
Still, it is a good practice to include all the primary evidence in an appendix that can be referred to later if need be. The results should always be written neutrally without any form of speculation or implication. The statement of the results mustn't have any form of evaluation or interpretation. Negative results should be added in the findings section because they validate the results and provide high neutrality levels.
The length of the dissertation findings chapter is an important question that must be addressed. It should be noted that the length of the section is directly related to the total word count of your dissertation paper. The writer should use their discretion in deciding the length of the findings section or refer to the dissertation handbook or structure guidelines. It should neither belong nor short, but it should be concise and comprehensive to highlight the reader's main findings.
Ethically, you should be confident in the findings and provide counter-evidence. Anything that does not have sufficient evidence should be discarded. The findings should be a response to the problem presented and provide a solution to those questions. The chapter should use appropriate words and phrases that present the results to the readers. Logical sentences should be used while paragraphs should be linked with each other to produce a cohesive work. You must make sure all the important results have been added in the section.
Recheck after you have completed the section to ensure that no mistakes have been made. The structure of the findings section is something you may have to sure of primarily because it will provide the basis for your research work and ensure that the discussions section can be written clearly and proficiently.
One way to arrange the results is to provide a brief synopsis and then explain the key findings. However, there should be no speculation or explanation of the results as this will be done in the discussion section.
Another way to arrange the section is to present a result and then explain it. This can be done for all the results while the section is concluded with an overall synopsis. This is the preferred method when you are writing more extended dissertations. It can be helpful when there are multiple results which are equally significant.
A brief conclusion should be written to link all the results and transition to the discussion section. There are numerous data analysis dissertation examples available on the Internet, which will help you improve your understanding of writing the dissertation's findings. Here is one such example. One of the problems to avoid while writing the dissertation findings is to report background information or explaining the findings. This should be done in the introduction section.
You can always revise the introduction chapter based on the data you have collected if that seems an appropriate thing to do. Raw data or intermediate calculations should not be added in the findings section. Always ask your professor if raw data needs to be included. If the data is to be included, then use appendix or set of appendices referred to in the text of the findings chapter. Do not use vague or non-specific phrases in the findings section.
It is important to be factual and concise for the benefit of the reader. The findings section presents the important data that was collected during the research process. It should be presented concisely and clearly to the reader. There should provide no interpretation, speculation, and analysis of the data. The major results should be categorized systematically with the text being used in conjunction with charts, figures, and tables.
Furthermore, it is important to abstain from using vague and non-specific words in this section. It is important to label the tables and visual material properly. You should also check and proofread the section to avoid mistakes. The dissertation findings chapter is a critical part of your overall dissertation paper. If you are struggling with presenting your results and statistical analysis, our expert dissertation writers can help you get things right.
Whether you need help with the full dissertation paper or individual chapters, our dissertation experts can provide customised dissertation support. How to Write a Dissertation Conclusion March 21, Critically Evaluating Your Dissertation June 2, Published by Felix Thomas at May 17, Revised on April 20, Table of Contents. When to Write Dissertation Findings Chapter As soon as you have gathered and analysed your data, you can start to write up the findings chapter of your dissertation paper, which is your chance to report the most notable findings of your research work and relate them to research hypothesis or research questions as set out in the introduction chapter of the dissertation.
TIPS Always report the findings of your research in the past tense. Reporting Quantitative Findings The best way to present your quantitative findings is to structure them around the research hypothesis or research questions you intended to address as part of your dissertation project.