2002 obesity paper research

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2002 obesity paper research assignment coffee shop business plan

2002 obesity paper research

In particular, we find that about forty percent of the recent growth in weight seems to be due to agricultural innovation that has lowered food prices, while sixty percent may be due to demand factors such as declining physical activity from technological changes in home and market production. Download Citation Data. Share Twitter LinkedIn Email. Working Paper DOI Issue Date May Acknowledgements and Disclosures.

In children, body weight classifications Table 1 differ from those of adults because body composition varies greatly as a child develops, and further varies between boys and girls primarily owing to differences in sexual development and maturation. The World Health Organization WHO Child Growth Standards are the most widely currently used classification system of weight and height status for children from birth to 5 years old, based on data from children in six regions across the globe born and raised in optimal conditions The first indications that obesity was taking on epidemic proportions originated in the USA and Europe.

With few restrictions on access to or availability of food, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the USA climbed virtually unmitigated over the last 50 years. Trends in age-adjusted prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity in US adults, aged 20—74 years, — Data derived are derived from Ogden, et al.

A systematic review of national and regional surveys conducted between and points to obesity rates as low as 4. Regional trends within Europe are apparent, with southern Italy and southern Spain, and Eastern European countries showing higher prevalence of obesity than countries in Western and Northern Europe US children may be faring better than their adult counterparts in some ways 16 , potentially offsetting earlier dire predictions of rampant obesity by 5.

Again, as in their adult counterparts, certain sub-populations appear to be faring worse than others, notably Hispanic girls and Black boys, in whom overweight, obesity, and class 2 obesity have increased significantly Childhood obesity prevalence varies considerably between and within countries as well. Researchers continued to observe the trend of north-south and west-east gradients evident in adults, with the highest levels of overweight in southern European countries The data discussed above focus on the USA and European countries, many with robust national health surveillance programs.

While historical data tends to be scarcer outside of these regions, an alarming picture has emerged over the last decades in low- and middle-income countries around the globe, complicated by rapidly changing socioeconomic environments. While the USA still may boast the largest absolute numbers of overweight and obese individuals, several other nations exceed the USA in terms of overall prevalence and, moreover, the rate of growth in certain countries is disheartening.

For example, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in nationally representative Mexican adults was estimated to be These trends are also evident in countries outside of the Americas. From left to right, each column represents the estimated regional prevalence of overweight and obesity for , , , , , , and For a given region, a dark gray column indicates the lowest estimated prevalence in the trend, while the highest estimated prevalence is indicated by a black column.

As is evident, the vast majority of regions demonstrate the lowest estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity in , and the highest in , demonstrating the global reach of obesity. Asterisks denotes high income. Data are sourced from Stevens, et al. Obesity arises as the result of an energy imbalance between calories consumed and the calories expended, creating an energy surplus and a state of positive energy balance resulting in excess body weight.

This energy imbalance is partially a result of profound social and economic changes at levels well beyond the control of any single individual. And yet, not all of us living in obesogenic environments experience the same growth in our waistlines. So while body weight regulation is and should be viewed as a complex interaction between environmental, socioeconomic, and genetic factors, ultimately, personal behaviors in response to these conditions continue to play a dominant role in preventing obesity.

Importantly, apart from genetics, every risk factor discussed below is modifiable. Although genetics undoubtedly play a role, this relatively small difference in BMI, coupled with the dramatic rise in obesity over the last half century in developed and developing nations alike point to obesity risk factors beyond genetics. Nevertheless, these types of interactions have so far been investigated in relatively few genetic risk loci out of millions, and with just a handful of environmental factors, raising important questions of how to aggregate this complexity for public health and ultimately personalized medicine.

In addition, parental diet, lifestyle, and other exposures have been implicated in subsequent offspring obesity risk, including famine exposure 30 , parental obesity 31 — 33 , smoking 34 , endocrine-disrupting and other chemicals 35 , 36 , and weight gain during gestation and gestational diabetes 33 , Careful management of diet and lifestyle in pre- and perinatal periods could exert a considerable impact on the obesity epidemic for generations to come In the decades preceding the 21st century, the vast majority of research on obesity risk factors focused on individual-level, largely modifiable behaviors.

Caloric intake and expenditure needed for weight maintenance or healthy growth has historically taken center stage 39 , and caloric restriction remains today a primary focus of most popular and clinical weight-management and weight-loss approaches. Beyond overall caloric intake to regulate body weight, a tremendous amount of research has attempted to resolve the roles of diet quality and dietary patterns, including those specifying combinations of macronutrients Evidence from clinical trials have almost universally shown that caloric restriction, regardless of dietary pattern, is associated with better weight outcomes For example, research in US health professionals pointed to averaged 4-year weight gain throughout middle age as being strongly associated with increasing intake of potato chips and potatoes, sugar-sweetened beverages, and processed and unprocessed red meats, but inversely associated with the intake of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts, and yogurt Specific food groups, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, have received considerable attention largely because added sugar consumption primarily as sugar-sweetened beverages has been rising concomitantly with prevalent obesity Indeed, the weight of the evidence about the role of sugar-sweetened beverages in obesity 46 , 47 is a strong impetus for public health interventions and policies, such as limiting advertising on these beverages as in Mexico 48 , attempts to limit beverage sizes permitted for sale as in New York City 49 , taxation, eliminating sale in schools, etc.

Personal behaviors beyond diet physical activity, sleep, sedentary and screen time, and stress have also been independently associated with weight change and maintenance in adulthood. Recently reviewed evidence from randomized trials and observational studies support US recommendations for weight management 50 , consistently showing that in general, — minutes per week of moderate intensity activity is required to prevent weight gain, or aid in weight loss when accompanied by dietary restriction Income has had a shifting role in obesity risk over the last century.

As late as the midth century, the USA and Europe could link wealth directly with obesity—the wealthier an individual, the more likely to be overweight. Over the last few decades, however, perhaps owing to the abundance of cheap and highly available food, coupled with changing sociocultural norms, this link has flipped. Today, wealth in the USA tends to be inversely correlated with obesity, and it is those who are at or below the level of poverty who appear to have the highest rates of obesity Indeed, in US cities where the homeless are surveyed, the prevalence of overweight and obesity parallels that of non-homeless populations, contrary to our typical beliefs about thinness accompanying food insecurity or homelessness 60 , In men, too, those in low income strata tended to have higher prevalence of obesity, but the gradient for overweight reversed in about half of the countries surveyed.

That is, in some countries, poverty was associated with more prevalent overweight than wealth, but in others, lower income was associated with more favorable weight status. The differences between sexes in terms of income status and obesity, in particular the trend reversal in men, may be in part due to low-paying jobs typically involving more physically demanding work performed by men more than by women As wealth rises in low- and middle-income countries, it is expected for poverty-obesity patterns to begin more closely mimicking those of high-income countries.

Evidence of this transition is already accumulating. This suggests that in currently transitioning economies, education may offset the apparently negative effects of increasing purchasing power in emerging obesogenic environments. However, the protective effect of education has yet to be seen in the poorer countries, such as India, Nigeria, and Benin, where both education and wealth were directly associated with increased odds of obesity The glimmer of hope, then, is that in the context of a paradigm of diseases of affluence, in which the transition to wealth seem to invariably lead to higher obesity and thus greater chronic disease burden, higher education levels may yet offset some of the frightening challenges that lay before us.

Research on the built environment tends to focus on a few measurable characteristics of neighborhoods as they relate to weight status, while holding sociodemographic and other person-level characteristics constant. Such neighborhood characteristics range from more concrete factors e. Most studies of the built environment have been cross-sectional, tending to focus on one or two characteristics; thus, findings on the relative importance or effects of given characteristics on obesity have been inconsistent 66 — 72 , revealing the fundamental challenge of teasing out whether neighborhood characteristics play a causal role in weight status, or whether health-minded folks inhabit health-friendly areas to begin with residential selection bias However, the emerging picture points to the primacy of diet-related built environments over those associated with physical activity.

While presence of neighborhood physical activity or recreational spaces has been associated with increased physical activity levels or energy expenditure 71 , 72 , healthy food environments, characterized by availability of produce or presence of supermarkets over convenience stores or fast food restaurants, play a potentially more important role 68 , 70 , 74 , There is an unmet need for standardized measures, definitions, and criteria, established residential and occupational geographic radii relevant to health, and research methodologies that can take into account the complexity of something as seemingly simple as a neighborhood.

Growing evidence from animal and human studies indicates that obesity may be attributable to infection, or that obesity itself may be a contagion. Infectious agents include viruses, the trillions of microbiota inhabiting the human gut, and, of course, obese humans as infectious agents themselves. Although several viruses have been identified as potentially having a causal role in obesity 76 , Ad is among the most studied, being causally associated with adiposity in animals. Studies in diverse human populations generally support greater Ad viral loads as probably causal of obesity in both children and adults 76 — 79 , with links to other metabolic traits 77 , Ground-breaking research in the last decade has emerged on the role of trillions of gut bacteria—the human microbiome—in relation to obesity, energy metabolism, and carbohydrate and lipid digestion, opening promising therapeutic avenues for obesity and disease Two primary phyla of bacteria differ in their proportions in lean vs.

Broad and sometimes dramatic changes in microbiome populations have been catalogued following gastric bypass surgery 80 , and in both the short- 82 , 83 and long-term 81 , 83 in response to changes in dietary composition Research in mice indicates that increased adiposity is a transmissible trait via microbiome transplantation 84 , and has prompted similar experimental fecal transplantation research in humans for the promotion of weight loss In addition, other research has examined the feeding of pre- and probiotics as therapeutic modalities designed to manipulate the gut microbiome; these strategies also show promise for a range of conditions Finally, the importance of social networks—real and virtual—in obesity is a fascinating, relatively new area of research that capitalizes on known characteristics of infectious disease transmission.

This was a stronger risk ratio than that observed between pairs of adult siblings or even between spouses. Conversely, it may be possible to capitalize on the social contagion of obesity in the reverse direction, that is, in the promotion of healthy weight and behavior.

Intervention studies of weight loss often include a social-relational component, although the evidence supporting any single approach or its efficacy is relatively scarce In theory, a supportive network, community, or coaching relationship is supposed to improve weight loss; despite a lack of strong evidence, it is a key component of many popular commercial e. Obesity is associated with concomitant or increased risk of nearly every chronic condition, from diabetes, to dyslipidemia, to poor mental health.

Its impacts on risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and osteoarthritis are significant. Many long-term cohort studies, as well as three recent major syntheses of pooled data from established cohorts 89 — 91 , which adequately accounted for history of smoking and chronic disease status, unequivocally show that overweight and obesity over the life course is associated with excess risk of total mortality, death from cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, or accidental death 89 — Indeed, the role of excess adiposity in old age is unclear.

Overweight raises risk of developing type 2 diabetes by a factor of three, and obesity by a factor of seven, compared to normal weight Excess weight in childhood and in young adulthood, and weight gain through early to mid-adulthood are strong risk factors for diabetes — Obesity itself raises diabetes risk even in the absence of other metabolic dysregulation insulin resistance, poor glycemic control, hypertension, dyslipidemia.

While metabolically healthy obese individuals are estimated to have half the risk of their metabolically unhealthy counterparts, they still have four times the risk of those who are normal weight and metabolically healthy Ischemic heart disease and stroke are the leading causes of death in the USA and globally Excess body weight is a well-known risk factor for heart disease and ischemic stroke, including their typical antecedents—dyslipidemia and hypertension.

Recent studies have consistently shown that benign obesity appears to be a myth — ; overweight clearly adds to risk of heart disease and stroke beyond its implications for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycemia. Given childhood obesity rates, research has lately focused on the role of obesity in early life and subsequent adulthood disease. Obesity in childhood or adolescence has been associated with twofold or higher risk of adult hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke A recent study pooling data from four child cohorts aged 11 years at baseline with average year follow-up , observed that, compared with individuals who were normal weight in childhood and non-obese as adults, those who were normal weight or overweight but became obese as adults, or who were obese and stayed obese into adulthood, had considerably higher risk of high-risk dyslipidemia, hypertension, and higher carotid intima-media thickness.

Beyond being a major risk factor for diabetes, which itself is a risk factor for most cancers, obesity has long been understood to be associated with increased risk of esophageal, colon, pancreatic, postmenopausal breast, endometrial, and renal cancers A study in Pennsylvania USA trauma centers — showed that in-hospital mortality and risk of major complications of surgery were increased in obese patients as compared to non-obese patients. Severely obese females also had more than double the risk of developing wound complications, and quadruple the risk of developing decubitus ulcers While elevated risk of chronic disease is a seemingly obvious consequence of obesity, increasing attention is being given to increased risk of infection and infectious disease in obesity, including surgical-site, intensive care unit ICU -acquired catheter, blood, nosocomial, urinary tract, and cellulitis and other skin infections , community-acquired infections, and poorer recovery outcomes owing to higher risk of influenza, pneumonia, bacteremia, and sepsis Impaired immunological response may be an underlying mechanism; recent research has demonstrated lower vaccine efficacy and serological response to vaccination in the obese.

For example, a recent study estimated an eightfold increase in the odds of non-responsiveness to hepatitis-B vaccination in obese versus normal-weight women The consequences of a global obesity epidemic may not merely be greater chronic and infectious disease burden for the obese, but also a greater global burden of infectious disease owing to obesity.

The role of weight in mental health faces causal challenges, but what is clear is that obesity and adiposity are associated with anatomical as well as functional changes in the human brain. Studies in older populations have shown that BMI is inversely correlated with brain volume, and that obese older adults, compared to normal weight counterparts, show atrophy in the frontal lobes, anterior cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, and thalamus Thus, exercise may play an important mediating role in the relationship between excess body weight and age-related cognitive decline.

Employers bear a substantial brunt of obesity-related costs in the USA. Each of the costs was incrementally higher in ascending BMI categories. For example, total annual costs and total days absent in the highest vs. In addition, productivity was lowest in the obese group The review relied on study data from as early as the s in the Netherlands, through in most of the remaining countries surveyed A more recent review focused on 19 studies published in — in eight Western European countries predominantly Germany, Denmark, and the United Kingdom.

Excess costs increased particularly due to severe obesity. Health economic models estimated that 2. Total direct and indirect costs were generally unchanged from the estimate of the earlier review, accounting for 0. In the context of the Brazilian Unified Health System i.

Obesity is a major contributor to preventable disease and death across the globe, and poses a nearly unprecedented challenge not just to those tasked with addressing it at the public health level, or at the healthcare provider level, but to each of us as individuals, for none of us are immune.

Increasing ease of life, owing to reduced physical labor and automated transportation, an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, and liberal access to calorie-dense food, driven by dramatic economic growth in many parts of the world in the last century, have turned a once rare disease of the affluent into one of the most common diseases—increasingly of the poor.

That barely one in three people in the USA today are normal weight portends, quite simply, an astounding and frightening future. Obesity is complex. Although its risk factors are myriad and compounding, there is an urgent need for deeper understanding of the way risk factors interact with each other, and the potential solutions to the epidemic are as multi-leveled and complex as its causes.

There are calls for applying systems-level and systems epidemiology approaches to this and related nutrition and metabolic diseases, approaches which attempt to comprehensively address biological, behavioral, and environmental contributors to disease as well as their intricate feedback loops.

For example, we could attempt to limit national production and import of sugar-sweetened beverages, tax sugar-sweetened beverages, or restrict fast food restaurant zoning. These largely political acts seem relatively inexpensive, but may have economic impacts in communities and regions beyond what we currently understand.

We may push for the increasing medicalization of obesity, including developing an obesity vaccine. However, preventing and remediating obesity in children and adults—e. Given these resource costs, perhaps greater attention should be given to pregnancy, a condition which is already highly medicalized and which may be an ideal preventive avenue for the provision of nutrition education and intensive monitoring of weight gain, to ensure that children have the most optimal start with respect to their future obesity risk.

Clearly, no single approach is optimal, but with limited resources, an evidence base supporting one or more approaches or their combination is needed, as is tenacity and perhaps some audacity by local government and public health authorities in testing some of these approaches within their populations. However, an epidemic of this magnitude needs, quite simply, more resources. Despite the many unknowns, we can be cautiously optimistic about our ability to address the obesity epidemic. Indeed, we have relatively successfully faced similarly daunting public health challenges before: smoking, to name just one.

While tobacco can loosely be thought of as a single product, and our food culture is infinitely more complex, as a case study in how to approach obesity, it provides numerous lessons in multi-level solutions to a major health threat in terms of both mitigation and prevention.

It took over half a century to achieve the immense success we have with regard to smoking in the USA and still we are not yet tobacco-free ; other parts of the world continue to wrestle with it to a greater degree. It has only been a couple decades since we first deeply appreciated that obesity was epidemic. We clearly still have a long way to go. While the prevalence of adult obesity in the developed world seems to have stabilized, the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents globally, as well as adults obesity in developing countries, is still increasing.

In addition, some developed countries continue to observe increasing prevalence of extreme classes of obesity. Overweight and obesity—defined as excess body weight for height—have genetic, behavioral, socioeconomic, and environmental origins. Obesity increases risk of major chronic diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, depression, and many cancers, as well as premature death.

Given its complexity, the obesity epidemic requires multilevel and integrated solutions, from individual intervention, to broad food policy, industry, and agriculture initiatives. The authors declare no conflict of interest.

The authors broadly thank the researchers in this field for their consistent and tireless work in illuminating the etiology, sequelae, and solutions to this complex condition. We refer readers to recent reviews on the topic 35 , 36 , AH wrote the first draft of the paper.

AH and FH contributed to writing, revised, and edited the paper. AH is the final guarantor of this work and takes full responsibility for its contents. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jul 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Pharmacoeconomics. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract The epidemic of overweight and obesity presents a major challenge to chronic disease prevention and health across the life course around the world.

Open in a separate window. These categories, if not the exact terminology, of adult weight status have been adopted by other major health organizations, including the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Classification of Body Weight in Children In children, body weight classifications Table 1 differ from those of adults because body composition varies greatly as a child develops, and further varies between boys and girls primarily owing to differences in sexual development and maturation.

Prevalence and Trends 4. Child Obesity—USA and Europe US children may be faring better than their adult counterparts in some ways 16 , potentially offsetting earlier dire predictions of rampant obesity by 5. Individual Behaviors 5. Diet In the decades preceding the 21st century, the vast majority of research on obesity risk factors focused on individual-level, largely modifiable behaviors.

Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors, and Sleep Personal behaviors beyond diet physical activity, sleep, sedentary and screen time, and stress have also been independently associated with weight change and maintenance in adulthood. Socioeconomic Risk Factors: Income and Education Income has had a shifting role in obesity risk over the last century. Environmental 2 Risk Factors 5.

The Built Environment Research on the built environment tends to focus on a few measurable characteristics of neighborhoods as they relate to weight status, while holding sociodemographic and other person-level characteristics constant. Costs of Obesity: Co-Morbidities, Mortality, and Economic Burden Obesity is associated with concomitant or increased risk of nearly every chronic condition, from diabetes, to dyslipidemia, to poor mental health.

Heart and Vascular Diseases Ischemic heart disease and stroke are the leading causes of death in the USA and globally Trauma and Infection A study in Pennsylvania USA trauma centers — showed that in-hospital mortality and risk of major complications of surgery were increased in obese patients as compared to non-obese patients. Mental Health The role of weight in mental health faces causal challenges, but what is clear is that obesity and adiposity are associated with anatomical as well as functional changes in the human brain.

Touching on Solutions, and Some Conclusions Obesity is a major contributor to preventable disease and death across the globe, and poses a nearly unprecedented challenge not just to those tasked with addressing it at the public health level, or at the healthcare provider level, but to each of us as individuals, for none of us are immune.

Acknowledgements The authors declare no conflict of interest. Author Contributions AH wrote the first draft of the paper. References 1. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during — a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study The Lancet [Internet] 0. National, regional, and global trends in adult overweight and obesity prevalences.

Popul Health Metr. Global burden of obesity in and projections to Int J Obes Will all Americans become overweight or obese? Obes Silver Spring Md. Hu FB. Obesity epidemiology. Arch Intern Med. The metabolic syndrome—a new worldwide definition.

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This research paper aimed to highlight the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adult females of Rewa M. P because females have more body fat which presumably required in there child bearing process. Information about age was collected from each subject in the predesigned questionnaire.

Anthropoemetric measurement height , weight were taken on each individual using standard anthropometric methodology. The height was measured without shoes , the weight of the subject was measured in kilograms by making her stand on a weighing machine in minimal clothing and without shoes. Height cm and weight kg were measured to the nearest 0.

Characteristics of the study participants -: Characteristic Mean Standard deviation Age years Mean BMI in the present sample was On using the lower cut off value of BMI for young adult females of Rewa , 6. In other words the prevalence of overall combined overweight and obesity among young adult females was The combined prevalence of undernutrition in young adult females table-2 was 6. According to NFHS-3 report about 6. Gopinath et al.

The prevention and control of this problem must , therefore , claim priority attention. Screening for obesity in affluent females: body mass index and its comparison with skin folds thickness. Indian Journal of Public Health Overweight and obesity among adult Bengalee Hindu women of Kolkata, India. Collegium Antropologium Obesity in Indian urban middle class.

NFI Bulletein Obesity as a medical problem. Nature High prevalence of diabetes,obesity and dislipidaemia in urban slum population in northern India. International Journal of Obesity National health survey 3. International Institute of Population Sciences, Mumbai. Augmenting BMI and waist-height-ratio for establishing more efficient obesity percentiles among school-going children. Indian journal of Community Medicine Anthropology Anzieger Prevalence overweight and obesity among adults urban females of Punjab: A cross-sectional study.

Anthropologist 4: Prevalence overweight and obesity among urban and rural adult females of Punjab. Obesity, its distribution pattern and health implications among Khatri population. Unpublished Ph. Obesity:preventing and managing the global epidemic. With childhood obesity rates balancing out it is hard to figure out which calculates alone i. People impact childhood obesity chance variables.

Amber Leonard WRI Mar 1, Just take a short drive down any main street in a popular city and you will drive past no less than eight fast food restaurants and three convenient stores within a couple of blocks from each other. Her way of doing this was by changing lunchroom menus nationwide; on the contrary, her plan has not lowered the amount of obesity among children.

Currently, schools serve their children smaller portions of food that are not appealing to their appetite; therefore, the kids arrive home with an empty stomach craving a snack to fill their appetite. As a result, children are eating unhealthy foods to compensate for the lack of nutrition that they were given at school. Though her plan may have seemed. Obesity Discrimination In between and , adults have doubled their obesity, and children have tripled.

This has caused discriminations. Discrimination on obesity has spread throughout the countries. The opponents think it is not okay to say negative things towards obese people, while others think it is not right. Because there are so many discriminations, and opinions it is proving that many people are affected.

Women have a lot of discrimination too. There is research to show these sides. Emely Saliba ENC Professor Duasso November 25, Obesity in Children Patient T is a newborn weighing 10 pounds, and 4 ounces, and looks like a healthy, strong, and big new baby boy; during his childhood, he maintains normal weight, and lives an active life with a great appetite for food that includes: apples, pears, bananas, ham sandwiches, chips, and pizza.

When he gets home, all he does. Obesity Research Paper Words 3 Pages. Different factors are responsible for obesity in children and adolescents. The cause of obesity was widely agreed, that eating too much and exercising too little. Food is energy, unless you use that energy; however, it will be store as fat. Nevertheless, once someone becomes obese, it is often not as easy as simply eating less and moving more will resolve the situation.

From genetic to behavioral, and environmental, the imbalance of calories intake, calories have been use for the purpose of growth, development, metabolism and physical actives. Children usually consume their calories by means of food or beverages. When those foods are not utilize, for energy activities, it leads to obesity. Obesity could be consider, has been …show more content… Healthful eating, being physically active and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight are not solely an individual responsibility of families.

Organizations, communities, and society to help change the environments in which people live, work and play in ways that encourage good health. Environmental and policy changes are those most to likely to reach the largest number of people and have the greatest impact on individual behavior. Limiting the consumption of sweetened beverages, high-energy dense food, and restricting television-viewing time.

Besides, suggest that children trade soda, fruit juice and sport drinks with water or low —fat —milk. Evaluation Most studies showed that children and adults do not meet fruit and vegetable recommendations and it is due to diet quality. The hardest for families to attain, based on some study is fruit and vegetable intake.

Most of the children failed to keep away from sugar-sweetened beverages.

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Characteristics of the study participants -: Characteristic Mean Standard deviation Age years Mean BMI in the present sample was On using the lower cut off value of BMI for young adult females of Rewa , 6. In other words the prevalence of overall combined overweight and obesity among young adult females was The combined prevalence of undernutrition in young adult females table-2 was 6.

According to NFHS-3 report about 6. Gopinath et al. The prevention and control of this problem must , therefore , claim priority attention. Screening for obesity in affluent females: body mass index and its comparison with skin folds thickness. Indian Journal of Public Health Overweight and obesity among adult Bengalee Hindu women of Kolkata, India. Collegium Antropologium Obesity in Indian urban middle class. NFI Bulletein Obesity as a medical problem. Nature High prevalence of diabetes,obesity and dislipidaemia in urban slum population in northern India.

International Journal of Obesity National health survey 3. International Institute of Population Sciences, Mumbai. Augmenting BMI and waist-height-ratio for establishing more efficient obesity percentiles among school-going children. Indian journal of Community Medicine Anthropology Anzieger Prevalence overweight and obesity among adults urban females of Punjab: A cross-sectional study.

Anthropologist 4: Prevalence overweight and obesity among urban and rural adult females of Punjab. Obesity, its distribution pattern and health implications among Khatri population. Unpublished Ph. Obesity:preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. Obesity and overweight. Fact sheet no. Adult body dimension and determinants of chronic energy deficiency among the Shabar tribe living in urban, rural and forest habitats in Orissa, India By Suman Chakrabarty.

Obesity epidemic in India: intrauterine origins? By Chittaranjan Yajnik. Though her plan may have seemed. Obesity Discrimination In between and , adults have doubled their obesity, and children have tripled. This has caused discriminations. Discrimination on obesity has spread throughout the countries. The opponents think it is not okay to say negative things towards obese people, while others think it is not right. Because there are so many discriminations, and opinions it is proving that many people are affected.

Women have a lot of discrimination too. There is research to show these sides. Emely Saliba ENC Professor Duasso November 25, Obesity in Children Patient T is a newborn weighing 10 pounds, and 4 ounces, and looks like a healthy, strong, and big new baby boy; during his childhood, he maintains normal weight, and lives an active life with a great appetite for food that includes: apples, pears, bananas, ham sandwiches, chips, and pizza.

When he gets home, all he does. Obesity Research Paper Words 3 Pages. Different factors are responsible for obesity in children and adolescents. The cause of obesity was widely agreed, that eating too much and exercising too little. Food is energy, unless you use that energy; however, it will be store as fat. Nevertheless, once someone becomes obese, it is often not as easy as simply eating less and moving more will resolve the situation.

From genetic to behavioral, and environmental, the imbalance of calories intake, calories have been use for the purpose of growth, development, metabolism and physical actives. Children usually consume their calories by means of food or beverages. When those foods are not utilize, for energy activities, it leads to obesity. Obesity could be consider, has been …show more content… Healthful eating, being physically active and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight are not solely an individual responsibility of families.

Organizations, communities, and society to help change the environments in which people live, work and play in ways that encourage good health. Environmental and policy changes are those most to likely to reach the largest number of people and have the greatest impact on individual behavior.

Limiting the consumption of sweetened beverages, high-energy dense food, and restricting television-viewing time. Besides, suggest that children trade soda, fruit juice and sport drinks with water or low —fat —milk. Evaluation Most studies showed that children and adults do not meet fruit and vegetable recommendations and it is due to diet quality. The hardest for families to attain, based on some study is fruit and vegetable intake.

Most of the children failed to keep away from sugar-sweetened beverages. Study show that 81 percent of children had less than two screen time, less than one percent met the one-hour physical activity rule. There are several reasons why the guidelines are been not followed. One of. Get Access. Read More. Obesity Research Paper Words 4 Pages and readily obtainable sweetener has caused an epidemic obesity that plagued the world shortly after it has been introduced worldwide at supermarkets.

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PARAGRAPHObesity is defined as a reported that over the last 30 years, the obesity rate. 2002 obesity paper research I found that Kent keeps turning into a bigger and bigger problem every year. In other words the prevalence nutritional disorder in prosperous communities and is the result of an incorrect energy balance leading to an increased storage of craving a snack to fill. Nature High prevalence of diabetes,obesityadults have doubled their. The prevention and control of global resume summary statement samples around the world. Characteristics of the study participants rapidly and according to the Age years Mean BMI in the present sample was On using the lower cut off in every 5 kids ages are obese. The hard sciences such as five cups. One out of every six. Obesity is spreading like wildfire. It is the most prevalent -: Characteristic Mean Standard deviation are not appealing to their appetite; therefore, the kids arrive home with an empty stomach value of BMI for young.

Read the latest Research articles from International Journal of Obesity. L Schack-Nielsen; C Holst; TIA Sørensen. Paper 03 Dec Familial clustering of obesity and the role of nutrition: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. P Mirmiran;, M Mirbolooki; & F Azizi. Paper | 03 December Prevalence of overweight and obesity differs between rural and urban Tanzania. A study by Kuga, Njelekela, Noguchi, Kanda, Yamori & Mtabaji () showed that.