literature review on organic food

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Literature review on organic food excuse essays

Literature review on organic food

POPULAR COLLEGE MOVIE REVIEW EXAMPLE

J Food Prod Mark 11 4 :3— Am J Potato Res — Grosglik R Organic hummus in Israel: global and local ingredients and images. Sociol Res Online 16 2. Int Rev Econ 57 1 — J Anim Vet Adv 10 3 — Intern Food Agribus Manag Rev 12 4 — Hamzaoui Essoussi L, Zahaf M a Profiling organic food consumers: motivation, trust orientation, and purchase behaviour. J Intern Bus Econ 8 2 — Hamzaoui Essoussi L, Zahaf M b Decision making process of community organic food consumers: an exploratory study.

J Consum Mark 25 2 — Motivations and trust issues. Agric Resour Econ Rev 40 2 — Hearne RH, Volcan M The use of choice experiments to analyze consumer preferences for ecolabeled and organic produce in Costa Rica. Q J Intern Agric 44 4 — Org Agric — Henryks J, Pearson D Retail outlets: nurturing organic food consumers.

Org Agric 1 4 — Hill H, Lynchehaun F Organic milk: attitudes and consumption patterns. Br Food J 7 — A matter of convenience and reflexive practices. Appetite — Consumer perception versus scientific evidence. Hoogland CT, de Boer J, Boersema JJ Food and sustainability: do consumers recognize, understand and value on-package information on production standards? Intern J Consum Stud 30 5 — Am J Agric Econ 94 2 — Hu W, Woods T, Bastin S Consumer acceptance and willingness to pay for blueberry products with nonconventional attributes.

J Agric Appl Econ 41 1 — A compilation and review of why people purchase organic food. J Consum Behav — James JS, Rickard BJ, Rossman WJ Product differentiation and market segmentation in applesauce: using a choice experiment to assess the value of organic, local, and nutrition attributes. Agric Res Econ Rev 38 3 — Janssen M, Hamm U Consumer perception of different organic certification schemes in five European countries.

Org Agric 1 1 — Br Food J 3 — Jonas A, Roosen J Demand for milk labels in Germany: organic milk, conventional brands, and retail labels. Agribusiness 24 2 — J Rural Dev — Katundu M, Hendriks S, Bower J, Siwela M Can sequential harvesting help small holder organic farmers meet consumer expectations for organic potatoes?

Food Qual Prefer 21 4 — Consumer valuations of milk after the implementation of USDA organic seal. J Agric Food Ind Organ 5 1. Kihlberg I, Risvik E Consumers of organic foods—value segments and liking of bread. Food Qual Prefer 18 3 — J Intern Food Agribusiness Market 20 3 — Klintman M Ambiguous framings of political consumerism: means or end, product or process orientation?

Int J Consum Stud 30 5 — What kind of knowledge matters? Appetite 41 2 — Koos S Varieties of environmental labelling, market structures, and sustainable consumption across Europe: a comparative analysis of organizational and market supply determinants of environmental-labelled goods. J Consum Policy 34 1 — Kretzschmar U, Schmid O Quality and safety aspects of organic and low-input food processing: results of a Delphi survey from an expert consultation in 13 European countries.

Krystallis A, Arvanitoyannis I, Chryssohoidis G a Is there a real difference between conventional and organic meat? J Food Prod Mark 12 2 — J Int Consum Market 19 1 — Kuhar A, Juvancic L Determinants of purchasing behaviour for organic and integrated fruits and vegetables in Slovenia. Agric Econ Rev 11 2 — Langen N Are ethical consumption and charitable giving substitutes or not? Food Qual Prefer 22 5 — Int J Consum Studies 25 3 — Agribusiness 20 2 — Advertising Age Oct J Food Distrib Res 38 3 — Liljenstolpe Demand for value-added pork in Sweden: a latent class model approach.

Agribusiness 27 2 — Renewable Agric Food Syst 23 3 — Sustainability 1 3 — NeuroImage 53 1 — Environ Plan 42 8 — Res Dev —5. Lockie S Capturing the sustainability agenda: organic foods and media discourses on food scares, environment, genetic engineering, and health. Agric Hum Values 23 3 — Appetite 43 2 — Sociol Rural 42 1 — Agribusiness 25 4 — J Agric Appl Econ 34 3 — Ecol Econ 53 1 — Lusk JL External validity of the food values scale. Accessed 18 Feb Rural Soc 11 3 — J Agribusiness 24 2 — Agric Econ 39 3 — Can J Anim Sci 91 2 — Martin KR, Rasmussen KK Comparison of sensory qualities of geographically paired organic and conventional red wines from the Southwestern US with differing total polyphenol concentrations: a randomized pilot study.

Food Nutr Sci 2 10 — McCarthy EJ Basic marketing. Irwin, Homewood. McCluskey JJ A game theoretic approach to organic foods: an analysis of asymmetric information and policy. Agric Resour Econ Rev 29 1 :1—9. Int J Consum Stud 26 2 — J Agric Environ Ethics 15 2 — McIntyre C, Schwanke B Biscuit cookie consumption: cognitive suspension to experience moments of perfection in another world than this!

Prospects and developments. Mondelaers K, Verbeke W, Van Huylenbroeck G Importance of health and environment as quality traits in the buying decision of organic products. J Agric Food Ind Organ 7 2 :1— Int J Consum Studies 30 5 — J Dairy Res 77 3 — Food Qual Prefer 21 2 — Ngobo PV What drives household choice of organic products in grocery stores?

J Retail 87 1 — Livest Sci 2—3 — Agric Res Econ Rev 40 1 — A conjoint analysis of direct and joint values for fresh produce claims. Am J Agric Econ 93 3 — Am J Agric Econ 93 2 — Padel S, Foster C Exploring the gap between attitudes and behaviour. Understanding why consumers buy or do not buy organic food. Agrociencia 42 3 — New Medit 10 3 — Pearson D How to increase organic food sales: results from research based on market segmentation and product attributes.

Australas Agribus Rev —5. J Org Syst 2 1 :1—9. Pellegrini G, Farinello F Organic consumers and new lifestyles. An Italian country survey on consumption patterns. Perrini F, Castaldo S, Misani N, Tencati A The impact of corporate social re-sponsibility associations on trust in organic products marketed by mainstream retailers.

A study of Italian consumers. Bus Strateg Environ 19 8 — Agric Econ 55 6 — Peterson HH, Li X Consumer preferences for product origin and processing scale: the case of organic baby foods. Afr J Agric Nutr Dev 10 11 — Pivato S, Misani N, Tencati A The impact of corporate social responsibility on consumer trust: the case of organic foods. Bus Ethics: Eur Rev 7 1 :3— Sri Lankan J Agric Econ 4 1 — Food Qual Prefer 19 1 — A literature review. J Environ Prot Ecol 12 2 — J Int Consum Mark 22 1 — Raab C, Grobe D Consumer knowledge and perception about organic foods.

J Ext 43 4. Radman M Consumer consumption and perception of organic products in Croatia. Br Food J 4 — J Agric Food Inf 12 2 — J Food Distrib Res 37 2 — Food Policy 33 2 — Food Qual Prefer 14 8 — Sahota A The global market for organic food and drink. N Z J Agric Res 49 3 — Health Med 5 2 — Int J Trade Glob Market 1 1 — Food Policy 33 6 — J Intern Food Agribusiness Mark 21 1 — Schifani G, Migliore G Solidarity purchase groups and the new critical and ethical consumer trends: first results of a direct study in Sicily.

A review. Seyfang G Ecological citizenship and sustainable consumption. J Rural Stud 22 4 — Ambio 34 4—5 — J Food Distrib Res 34 1 — An empirical analysis in France. Int J Cons Stud 32 5 — Int J Consum Stud 35 6 — A systematic review.

Ann Intern Med 5 — Cienc Tecnol Aliment 28 1 — Results from an experimental auction market. Agric Hum Values 28 4 — Stagl S Local organic food markets: potentials an limitations for contributing to sustainable development. Empirica 29 2 — Bodenkult 52 4 — Choices 22 2 — Int J Consum Stud 31 4 — Int J Consum Stud 32 5 — Tarkiainen A, Sundqvist S Subjective norms, attitudes, and intention of Finnish consumers in buying organic foods.

J Macro Mark 30 2 — Thompson CT, Coskuner-Balli G Countervailing market responses to corporate co-optation and the ideological recruitment of consumption communities. J Consum Res 34 2 — J Sci Food Agric 91 12 — Truninger M The organic food market in Portugal: contested meanings, competing conventions. Int J Retail Distrib Manag 36 2 — J Food Prod Mark 12 3 — Spanish case study.

Int J Cons Stud — J Food Sci 75 7 — Food Qual Prefer 22 7 — Verhoef RC Explaining purchases of organic meat by Dutch consumers. Eur Rev Agric Econ 32 2 — Agric Sci 2 4 — Wang Q, Sun J, Parsons R Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for locally grown organic apples: evidence from a conjoint study.

HortSci 45 3 — Can J Agric Econ 50 4 — Westerlund Lind L Consumer involvement and perceived differentiation of different kinds of pork — a means-end chain analysis. Food Qual Prefer 18 4 — Food Policy 33 5 — FiBL, Frick. Willer H, Kilcher L eds The world of organic agriculture — statistics and emerging trends Agric Resour Econ Rev 40 1 — The last systematic review into the effect of organic food consumption on health was conducted by Dangour et al.

Although there have been other more recent reviews on the effects of organic diet on broader aspects of health [ 16 , 17 , 18 , 21 ], none have been systematic. The literature has expanded since these earlier systematic reviews, with many cohort and cross-sectional studies being published which compare organic versus conventional dietary intake on a range of health outcomes. Dangour et al. The Smith-Spangler et al. The present systematic review was designed to assess the breadth of evidence related to human health outcomes when an organic diet is consumed in comparison to its conventional counterpart.

This review reports results from 35 studies including both clinical trial and observational research and includes substantially more papers than previous systematic reviews on this topic. This review does not include a comparison of nutritional quality between production types, safety of organic food, or human studies where environmental pesticide exposure is the focus.

Relevant keywords included terms related to organic dietary intake in combination with words relevant to health outcomes i. Search terms were amended slightly for each database. Articles with English titles and abstracts were considered for inclusion.

Additional publications were identified from the reference lists of obtained articles that were included in the review. All articles that compared organic versus conventional dietary intake in relation to a direct or an indirect health outcome were included.

We did not set out to limit paper inclusion by including a strict definition of organic intake, but accepted all papers that self-identified as representing comparative information on health outcomes from organic versus conventional diets.

In doing so, we set out a priori to ensure we obtained a comprehensive snapshot of the available literature in this area. Only human feeding studies were included. Studies including infant participants measured from the second trimester of pregnancy were included where the mother gave dietary information during pregnancy. Any clinical trial where organic food items were taken to replace non-organic food items, or observational studies where there was a comparison between organic and non-organic dietary intake were included.

This encompassed individual food or drink replacement, through to entire diet substitution. Observational research was accepted where dietary intake was classified according to level of organic food within individual dietary groups or whole diet. Clinical trials were included where they provided comparative results on direct or indirect health outcomes. Cohort studies were included where associations with development of disorder or disease were reported, or if they provided comparisons of biological samples across organic versus conventional dietary intake groups.

Types of studies included were randomised controlled trials RCT , non-controlled trials, prospective or retrospective cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. Articles were excluded if they were not specifically examining the effect of organic dietary intake with conventional dietary intake, or if they did not report on human biomarkers related to health, or disease development. Articles were excluded if they were concerned with occupational exposure to agricultural chemicals or domestic use of pesticides and unrelated to dietary consumption of organic versus non-organic foods.

Two reviewers independently reviewed full articles for inclusion based on relevance to the study question and eligibility criteria. One reviewer VV extracted data from included studies, which was checked by a separate reviewer SM. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool was used to assess likelihood of bias in each clinical trial publication [ 67 ].

All assessments were conducted by at least two authors, with differences settled by discussion. Summary tables detailing results of bias assessments are presented in Supplementary Figure S2. The remaining 95 full-text publications were assessed, of which a further 60 publications were excluded.

Thirty-five papers met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Of these, 15 publications reported on 13 clinical trials—three of which were parallel-arm randomised controlled trials RCT , with the remaining studies utilising a crossover design. In observational studies, 20 publications reported on 13 cohorts.

The studies were all published in English. The majority of the clinical trials were conducted in Europe—Germany 2 , Denmark 2 , Italy 2 , France 1 , and Switzerland 1 , with other countries including: the United States 2 , Turkey 1 , Brazil 1 , and Australia 1. Several studies investigated the effect of replacing a single non-organic food or drink item with its organic counterpart.

Three of the trials utilised an acute dose setting red wine, apples or grape juice in a crossover design [ 40 , 42 , 48 ], while others were based on the daily consumption of the food item tomatoes and derived purees, carrots or apples for a period of 2—4 weeks [ 37 , 38 , 39 ]. Those studies looking at nutrient levels i. Other single-item substitution studies measured antioxidant capacity, or DNA damage in biological samples [ 38 , 39 , 40 , 42 , 48 ].

There were no significant between-group differences in these biomarkers in any of the studies. Four of these trials two in children and two in adults measured changes in pesticide excretion through urine [ 31 , 34 , 43 , 44 , 49 ]. All of these trials demonstrated a significant difference in the amount of pesticide metabolites excreted during the different phases of the diet interventions. The remaining trials were all conducted in adult populations and measured antioxidant capacity and flavonoid excretion [ 41 ]; carotenoids [ 47 ]; or antioxidant capacity, changes to body composition, lipids and inflammatory markers [ 45 , 46 ].

Similar to the results from clinical trials replacing single food items, individual flavonoid and carotenoid excretion appeared to reflect the content of the foods consumed i. Two studies completed by the same research group in Italy looked at the effects of a Mediterranean diet intervention non-organic phase followed by organic phase.

An initial pilot study of 10 people [ 45 ] and a following larger cohort study of people healthy and 50 with chronic kidney disease CKD [ 46 ] provided a two-stage intervention, with a controlled Mediterranean diet MD for 14 days followed by the same diet for a further 14 days using organic rather than conventional foodstuffs.

The pilot study found an increased antioxidant effect from 2. The authors also showed a generally higher antioxidant level in the organic foods eaten in comparison to non-organic. In the larger study, in both healthy and CKD patients there was a highly significant effect on body weight reduction and improved body composition seen through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry DXA and bio-impedance analysis BIA between the two time points end of conventional MD and end of organic MD.

A retrospective case-control study in a mother—child cohort was also included [ 57 ]. Several of the identified studies provided cross-section data only. For ease of reporting, all of the observational studies have been separated into subject areas. Firstly, looking at potential influence on foetal development effect on sperm, fertility, and birth defects, pre-eclampsia ; breast milk studies; development of allergies in children; urinary pesticide excretion; cancer development incidence; and changes in nutritional biomarkers in adults.

Two investigations examined the association between sperm health in Danish organic farmers. The first compares the organic farmers to non-organic farmers and shows a significantly lower proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa in the non-organic group, but no significant difference in relation to 14 other semen parameters [ 51 ]. The other compares the organic farmers to a control group of airline pilots, finding a higher sperm concentration among organic farmers increased by They found high-pesticide residue fruit and vegetable FV intake was inversely associated with probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth per initiated cycle.

High-pesticide residue FV intake was positively associated with probability of total pregnancy loss. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study MoBa investigated associations between an organic diet and conventional diet during pregnancy and the development of pregnancy complications, including pre-eclampsia [ 56 ] and incidence of the rare reproductive abnormalities in infant boys—hypospadias or cryptorchidism [ 55 ].

A lower prevalence of hypospadias with any organic consumption, in particular organic vegetables, was found, with no difference for cryptorchidism. This prospective study included 35, mothers of male infants in Norway, with organic food in six food groups assessed by food frequency questionnaires FFQ [ 55 ]. Whole diet composition was considered using slightly different methods in each of these analyses; therefore, residual confounding may exist between the results reported.

In a smaller case-control study, retrospective data were collected from mothers of infant males who were operated on for hypospadias matched to mothers of healthy infant males in Denmark. The influence of organic food consumption as part of an anthroposophical lifestyle in pregnancy and early childhood has been discussed following two major studies—the KOALA birth cohort in the Netherlands [ 60 , 70 , 71 ], and the ALADDIN birth cohort in Sweden [ 61 ].

It is important to note that organic food consumption is only one of several food-specific differences that are a key part of the anthroposophic lifestyle see discussion. Minimal changes were seen in breastmilk composition in the KOALA birth cohort study, with increased rumenic acid and a trend for increased trans-vaccenic acid in quartiles of highest organic consumption [ 58 ]. No difference was seen in trans fatty acid content within the same cohort [ 60 ].

An American study examining milk and urine samples of lactating women for glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid AMPA did not find any evidence of these chemicals in the breast milk of conventional or organic food consumers [ 66 ]. The data was predominantly self-reported.

The Million Women Study in the United Kingdom examined any association with cancer incidence and organic diet over a 9-year follow-up period in 1. They found no association for reduced cancer incidence in the group, with the exception of a possibly lower incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma [ 65 ]. The group, followed for a mean of 4. The information on non-Hodgkin lymphoma is similar to that found in the Million Women study; however, the information related to breast cancer was in direct contrast.

Organic consumers had higher levels of magnesium and a lower plasma concentration of iron. The results of these participants, matched for dietary patterns and other health factors, indicates a possible mild modulation of nutritional levels between organic and non-organic consumers.

The results of bias assessment for cohort studies showed all studies as good or fair, with no studies returning an assessment of poor. Cross-sectional studies were assessed as having a low risk of bias, with the exception of Jensen et al. Within the clinical trials reviewed, the risk of bias was classified as high in several areas, specifically those related to blinding and allocation concealment. Due to the nature of the intervention, in some cases, it was difficult to adequately blind participants i.

There were, however, several studies [ 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 ] where blinding and randomisation is stated, but the method is not adequately reported and, therefore, they have received an unclear risk of bias in these areas.

Many of the studies were not randomised, providing one diet followed by the alternate diet for all participants concurrently. Significant bias likely to affect the outcomes of the reports was found for two studies conducted by the same research group in Italy [ 45 , 46 ]. In both cases, all participants received a controlled Mediterranean diet MD for 14 days followed by the same diet for a further 14 days using organic rather than conventional foodstuffs, with no washout between diet arms.

This introduces a significant risk of bias for the validity of the outcomes for the organic diet intervention as it may be a cumulative effect of the MD changes, rather than a specific effect for the organic component of the diet. Another study with high risk of bias was the study by Goen et al.

Results of bias assessments are shown in Supplementary Figure S2. No formal grading system was applied to the included articles; however, elements of study quality, including high risk of bias or un-realistic results have been discussed for individual articles throughout the review. Several included articles in this present review were not accepted in the previous systematic review into this topic conducted by Dangour et al.

These include pesticide excretion studies [ 33 , 72 ] and a cross-sectional study on semen analyses [ 51 ], excluded on the basis of being contaminant studies; and a second semen analysis study [ 73 ], excluded as an occupational health study. The rationale for our inclusion of these studies is that although occupational exposure may have been a factor in the Larsen study [ 73 ], the method of calculating pesticide exposure was based entirely on food intake.

Pesticide excretion studies were included as this was considered potentially important for health, and these studies are also included in other reviews discussing comparison of organic and conventional food intakes on health, i. Substantially more papers are included compared to previous systematic reviews on this topic [ 19 , 35 ] with varying levels of bias and quality.

The included clinical trials use a diverse range of methodologies, all involving short-term food substitutions. These range from acute intake of a single dietary item conventional or organic , to entire diet substitution over a maximum exposure time of 4 weeks, with most of the studies utilising a 2-week intervention period.

The majority of the results show no, or minimal, significant differences between organic O and non-organic NO treatments in the biomarkers selected. In several of these trials, a single food or drink [ 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 42 , 47 , 48 ] was substituted for their organic equivalent. Those studies that also compared the composition of the two food items found there was no difference in the concentration of the nutrient of interest i. Similarly, in whole-diet substitution studies, those that examined antioxidant capacity or nutrients in biomarkers, generally did not show between-group differences, which again appeared to be reflective of the laboratory values of these nutrients were measured [ 41 , 47 ].

However, one study did show a significant change in antioxidant capacity [ 45 ]. This study, and a related trial [ 46 ], which was the only trial to assess a direct health outcome, both provided a NO Mediterranean diet intervention for 2 weeks prior to 2 weeks of the same O Mediterranean diet. There are several issues with the methodology of this model, these and the associated high risk of bias are discussed further in Section 3.

The reported weight loss and body composition changes in this study appear unrealistic for the day time frame. The authors report a mean weight loss of 5. The fat loss is reported as 7. Without baseline assessments provided before any dietary intervention in this group, the effect of the organic intervention cannot be relied upon.

Whole-diet substitution trials that measured changes in pesticide excretion showed significant and substantial reductions during the O diet phase [ 31 , 34 , 43 , 44 , 49 ], and are discussed under Section 4. To date, there are no long-term clinical trials measuring direct health outcomes from organic diet intervention. The short timeframe of currently available clinical trials is a serious limitation in assessing demonstrable health benefits.

Additionally, only surrogate markers of health have been applied to the majority of clinical trials, with most trials measuring antioxidant levels or pesticide metabolite excretion. Studies included in this review report positive associations between organic diet consumption and a range of areas, including fertility, birth defects, allergic sensitisation, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and metabolic syndrome.

Findings from two cross-sectional reports on semen parameters detailed mixed findings, and although the majority of tested parameters showed no significant differences, higher sperm concentration in O consumers [ 50 ] and lower normal sperm in NO consumers [ 51 ] offer preliminary data that is worthy of further exploration. In female fertility, very positive associations between low dietary pesticide exposure and successful pregnancy and birth outcomes in women undergoing assisted reproduction have been reported in one study [ 52 ].

Given the declining fertility rates and poorer semen quality being reported worldwide [ 74 ], higher odds of achieving clinical pregnancy and live birth with an organic diet is a significant and important finding. A reduction in risk of birth defects hypospadias [ 55 , 57 ], but not cryptorchidism [ 55 ], and reduced risk of pre-eclampsia [ 56 ] add further evidence for organic diet use through pregnancy.

In children, increased risk of recurrent otitis media has been positively associated with pesticide intake [ 62 ], and decreased allergic sensitisation was shown in families following an anthroposophical lifestyle, in comparison to a conventional cohort in the Assessment of Lifestyle and Allergic Disease During Infancy ALLADIN study [ 61 ]. Consumption of organic dairy products was associated with lower eczema risk as the only significant positive outcome in a similar study KOALA [ 60 , 70 , 71 ].

There are other studies that have supported lower rates of allergic sensitisation from an anthroposophical lifestyle; however, the contribution of organic foods in these studies was not sufficient for them to be included in this review [ 75 , 76 , 77 ]. Specific confounding factors related to anthroposophic studies are discussed in Section 4.

Both of these studies have investigated associations with cancer risk [ 64 , 65 ], with both finding reduced risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma with increased organic consumption. Other findings between the two studies were similar, with a very small risk reduction 0. Postmenopausal breast cancer rates were decreased in high-O consumers [ 64 ], but overall breast cancer risk slightly increased in the alternate study [ 65 ]. Different adjustment variables between the studies may have been partly responsible for the different outcomes reported, i.

Whilst this was self-reported data, there is evidence from other association studies that supports dysregulation of several key facets involved in metabolic syndrome in association with serum pesticides [ 78 , 79 ]. As with any observational studies, there is difficulty in determining the causality of the associations that have been observed.

It is possible that the benefits of organic diets are associated only with long-term consumption, or result from lifestyle factors or dietary patterns, which is much harder to model in prospective clinical trials.

One of the major benefits proposed for organic food is the reduction in exposure to chemicals such as pesticides. Pesticide residues are found in differing amounts across predominantly, fruits and vegetables, but also, grain and dairy products, with much lower amounts found in animal products except liver, which contains high levels [ 24 ]. The major class of pesticides tested for in the organic food literature reviewed for this paper were the organophosphates, the metabolites of which can be measured in the urine as markers of recent exposure.

The most commonly detected metabolites are dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, diethylphosphate, and diethylthiophosphate. In some studies, herbicide exposure was also assessed, mainly glyphosate, often assessed through its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid. Interventions with organic diets markedly reduced the levels of these compounds, and observational studies in adults and children also show reduced urinary metabolite levels in organic versus conventional diets.

Results of recent reviews comparing pesticide residues in organic and conventional foods conclude that organic food consumption is one approach to substantially minimise exposure to pesticides [ 17 , 21 ]. It is well documented that pesticide concentrations in wholegrain and wholemeal products are higher than in polished grains such as white flour products since the outer bran layers of grains have higher pesticide loads then the endosperm [ 81 ]. Apart from wholegrain products, fruits and vegetables are the main dietary source for pesticide exposure and recent European monitoring showed that multiple residues and concentrations above the MRL are most frequently found in fruit and vegetables [ 24 ].

Lifestyle factors amongst organic consumers are likely to have an important impact on external validity. Organic consumers tend to be more health conscious, are more likely to be vegetarian or vegan and are more likely to be physically active [ 7 , 8 ]. Epidemiological research has shown consumers of organic food generally have a diet that is higher in plant-based food, lower in animal products, with a higher intake of legumes, nuts, and wholegrains than their conventional food-consuming counterparts.

These dietary patterns are likely to have significant health benefits in comparison to what is commonly recognised as the standard Western diet, a diet categorised by highly refined, low-fibre, omnivorous diets low in fruits, vegetables and other plant-based foods [ 82 ]. A wholefood diet high in fibre and plant matter also has demonstrable effects on a healthy diverse microbiota, which is linked to overall health [ 83 ].

The organic consumer group may, therefore, not be representative of the general population, i. It is possible that the benefit observed for organic intake may be partly due to the quality and composition of the diet rather than a direct effect of organic food consumption. Additionally, validation of self-reported organic intake in observational studies is lacking. The included cohorts from anthroposophical backgrounds ALLADIN and KOALA birth cohorts adds an additional layer of confounding, as the consumption of organic food forms only a small part of the dietary measures adopted in this group.

Anthroposophy includes a strong focus on fermented foods, biodynamic production, use of butter and olive oil as predominant fats, and long-term breastfeeding [ 60 , 61 ]. This is combined with other factors such as reduced levels of antibiotic and medication use and a high proportion of plant foods, which together may impact on the overall health of mothers and babies, and influence the results shown. This makes any interpretation on the benefits or otherwise of organic food consumption very difficult.

No formal grading system was applied to the included studies. A grading criteria, such as that employed by Dangour et al. The review was limited by the non-inclusion of foreign language databases. A growing number of important findings are being reported from observational research linking demonstrable health benefits to levels of organic food consumption.

Clinical trial research has been short-term and measured largely surrogate markers with limited positive results. Pesticide excretion studies have consistently shown a reduction in urinary pesticide metabolites with an organic diet; however, there is insufficient evidence to show translation into clinically relevant and meaningful health outcomes.

There is a need for studies to move beyond simply measuring the reduction in pesticide exposure with organic food, to investigating measurable health benefits. The finding that organic food consumption substantially reduces urinary OP levels is important information for consumers, who would like to take a precautionary approach and minimise OP-pesticide exposure. Given the current knowledge on the toxicity of these chemicals, it seems possible that ongoing reduced exposure may translate to health benefits.

While findings from this systematic review showed significant positive outcomes from observational studies in several areas, including reduced incidence of metabolic syndrome, high BMI, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, infertility, birth defects, allergic sensitisation, otitis media and pre-eclampsia, the current evidence base does not allow a definitive statement on the long-term health benefits of organic dietary intake.

Consumption of organic food is often tied to overall healthier dietary practices and lower levels of overweight and obesity, which are likely to be influential in the results of observational research. Single-food substitution studies have shown no benefits and should not be undertaken without substantive pre-clinical data. Additionally, surrogate markers, i. Unlike the current exposure studies which measure changes in days or weeks, longer-term health benefit studies are needed.

Specifically, long-term whole-diet substitution studies, using certified organic interventions will provide the most reliable evidence to answer the question of whether an organic diet provides true measurable health benefits. Conceptualization, S. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

The authors declare no conflict of interest. The research team are associated with a research centre in organic food, and have remained mindful to ensure this review was objective, transparent and reproducible. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Nutrients v. Published online Dec Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Sep 25; Accepted Dec This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials nutrientss Abstract The current review aims to systematically assess the evidence related to human health outcomes when an organic diet is consumed in comparison to its conventional counterpart.

Keywords: health outcomes, organic, organic diet, pesticide-free, sustainable diet. Methods 2. Study Eligibility Criteria 2. Population Only human feeding studies were included. Intervention Any clinical trial where organic food items were taken to replace non-organic food items, or observational studies where there was a comparison between organic and non-organic dietary intake were included. Outcome Clinical trials were included where they provided comparative results on direct or indirect health outcomes.

Study Designs Types of studies included were randomised controlled trials RCT , non-controlled trials, prospective or retrospective cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. Exclusion Criteria Articles were excluded if they were not specifically examining the effect of organic dietary intake with conventional dietary intake, or if they did not report on human biomarkers related to health, or disease development.

Data Extraction Two reviewers independently reviewed full articles for inclusion based on relevance to the study question and eligibility criteria. Table 1 Data extraction table—Clinical trials. There were no significant between-group differences in any outcome.

The two purees had similar lycopene and beta-carotene contents. Describes growing conditions of both crops. They were both experimental crops for the study. Control C followed carotenoid restricted diet. No significant difference in any outcome measure. There was no significant difference in carotenoid concentration of O and NO carrots. Double-blind RCT. There were no significant differences between the O and NO intake in any of the analysed polyphenols. The third group served as control group C , and maintained an apple- and polyphenol restricted diet.

Single consumption of g of conventional apples NO or organic apples O. There were no statistically significant differences between groups on DNA damage, antioxidant activity or LDL oxidation. Whole diet intervention. Two intervention diets: conventional NO and organic O ; consisted of 4 different menus with identical meals and quantities.

No organic certification defined. The study used local, known conventional and organic growers pork - from same litter, dairy, eggs, fruit and vegetables sowed and harvested within same week and from similar geographic location. Single dose of conventional wine NO , or organic wine O. Men drank mL alcohol content 24 g and women drank mL alcohol content 12 g over 15 minutes. Very poorly reported results. SOD at 6 hour increased in NO group compared to baseline no values given.

Urine samples first and last of the day collected for whole 15 day period. Metabolites for selected OP pesticides, pyrethroid insecticides, and herbicides. No effect of diets on other metabolites. Details as above, including testing for or consecutive-days in the summer July—August and fall October—November , respectively, and a 7-consecutive-day sampling period in both the winter January—February and spring April—May. Authors observed a seasonal effect on organophosphorus urinary biomarker levels in this cohort, and this seasonality corresponds to the consumption of fresh produce among the children throughout the year.

This study is extended seasonal data for the same study detailed in Lu Conventional Mediterranean diet intervention NO , followed by organic Mediterranean diet intervention O. Plasma antioxidant ORAC capacity. Described as an "exclusively organic" diet for the organic treatment arm. Inflammatory parameters decreased in both groups after the O diet.

OA: organic based on livestock manure, OB: organic based on green manure and NO: conventional with mineral fertilizers grown in two consecutive years year 1 and 2. Diets fully controlled. Fasting blood samples day 1 and day 13 of each treatment arm analysed for carotenoid content. There was no significant difference in the plasma carotenoid content from the three different diets. There was very little difference between the concentrations of carotenoids in the carrots across growth systems, or across year to year of crops.

The organic growth systems were managed in compliance with the Danish guidelines for organic farming administered by the Danish Plant Directorate. Single-blind RCT. Single dose of mL of conventional juice NO , organic juice O , or water. Blood samples were collected at 0 and 60 minutes.

GSH increased by 8. SOD increased GPx increased 6. Conventional diet NO or organic diet O. Urine samples taken for last 4 days of each intervention. NO shows organophosphate pesticides and some chlorinated phenoxy carboxylic acids as main exposure components. Not defined. Prior to study children enrolled primarily consumed conventional diet. Urine samples collected over 16 consecutive days. Food diaries kept during study phases.

Urinary concentrations of pesticides 23 pesticide metabolites including specific and nonspecific metabolites for OP, pyrethrin, and pyrethroid insecticides and select herbicides. Food for the organic phase was provided by the researchers according to the families shopping list request to maintain diet similarity. Participants maintained usual dietary choices and sourced own food. Spot morning urine sample analysed on day 8 of each diet. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Data extraction table - Observational Studies.

Analysis of semen samples for sperm quality in male organic farmers and airline workers. Diet, working conditions, health, and lifestyle were assessed with questionnaire. Self-reported FFQ. Comparison of sperm concentration, seminal volume, total sperm count, and sperm morphology. Sperm concentration was Seminal volume, total sperm count, and sperm morphology were not different between groups.

This was a short report and missing detail on organic diet definitions between groups. No specific definition of organic. Analysis of semen samples for sperm quality in organic vs. Correlation between estimated dietary pesticide intakes and semen parameters including sperm concentration, seminal volume, total sperm count, and sperm morphology.

Group N showed a significantly lower proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa, but no difference in 14 other semen parameters. A higher intake of five specific pesticides equated with a lower percentage of dead spermatozoa. No other significant differences were found. Clinical outcomes included implantation, clinical pregnancy, live birth. Early ART end points included markers of ovarian responses to stimulation peak estradiol levels, endometrial thickness, oocyte development, total oocytes , fertilization rate, and embryo quality.

High PRBS was inversely associated with probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth per initiated cycle. No association was found between quartiles and early ART end points. Followed for up to 7 years, looking at all first primary cancers diagnosed between study inclusion and November All first primary cancers diagnosed between study inclusion and November All cancer types considered cases except for basal cell skin carcinoma, which was not considered cancer. High organic food scores were linearly and negatively associated with the overall risk of cancer HR for Q4 vs Q1, 0.

Within individual cancer types, a significantly reduced HR was seen for those with Q4 intake vs. Q1 for all lymphomas, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and post-menopausal breast cancer. Consumption frequency of food and drink items used to calculate organic score. Self-reported FFQ used to estimate organic food intake. Urinary pesticide and metabolite concentrations organophosphorus, pyrethroid, and azole compounds. Pesticide concentrations were mostly below LOD.

For pesticide metabolites, significantly higher levels of DETP, DMTP, total DAPs organophosphorus metabolites and free 3-PBA a pyrethroid metabolite were found among conventional consumers compared to organic consumers, with median concentration levels of diethylphosphate 0. Pregnant women at gestational week 22 surveyed for organic food consumption with results correlated to prevalence of male infants born with hypospadias or cryptorchidism. Seventy-four male newborns were diagnosed with hypospadias 0.

No association was observed for consumption of organic food and cryptorchidism. All food sold as organic in Norway must be certified by Debio. Pregnant women at gestational week 22 surveyed for organic food consumption with results correlated to prevalence of pre-eclampsia. Pre-eclampsia in pregnant women. The prevalence of pre-eclampsia in the study sample was 5. The lower risk was evident also when adjusting for overall dietary quality. Retrospective interviews of organic dietary habits in mothers with male infant born with hypospadias and matched controls.

FFQ listed choice of organic food items in the first trimester for milk, other dairy, eggs, meat, FV. Responses consisted of often, sometimes, rarely and never. Current dietary habits up to several years post-pregnancy were taken as proxy for pregnancy diet.

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Abstract - Food security, nutritional quality and safety vary widely around the world. Reaching these three goals is one of the major challenges for the near future. In line with several published literature reviews, the French Agency for Food Safety AFSSA performed under my coordination an up-to-date exhaustive and critical evaluation of the nutritional and sanitary quality of organic food.

Thus, organic agricultural systems have already proved able to produce food with high quality standards. I propose also improvements of organic production to achieve sustainable food production for humans in the near future. Briefly, great concern has been caused by high energy and chemical inputs, worldwide contamination of the food chain and water by persistent pesticide residues and nitrates, and the reduced nutrient and flavor contents through low-cost and intensive food production and extensive milling or processing.

Only recently has the combined awareness for environment protection, food safety and security and well-being markedly raised public concern and demand for ecologically grown staple foods El-Hage Scialabba, ; Niggli et al. In fact, the nutritional and toxicological value of food produced under methods of ecological agriculture has long been a matter of interest and debate.

Despite the potential importance of this topic for human well-being, only a limited number of studies have been specifically carried out due to the past general lack of consideration of alternative and sustainable methods of food production. During the last few decades, several literature reviews have already been performed and published in this field Schuphan, ; Finesilver et al.

In most cases, these reviews have used data from original studies or previous reviews without true consideration of the quality of the data. The conclusions derived can somewhat differ but they generally highlight some benefits from organic agriculture. To this aim, an expert working group was set up under my coordination. We aimed to reach the highest quality standard during our evaluation. We thus defined inclusion as well as exclusion criteria for use of original publications.

Briefly, selected papers should refer to well-defined and certified organic agricultural practices, and have necessary information on design and follow-up, valid measured parameters and appropriate sampling and statistical analyses. After more than two years of work involving about 50 experts from all specific areas including organic agriculture, a final consensus report was issued in the French language in AFSSA, The present review paper is a summary of this report including some updating and some more personal suggestions.

Is it because Dr. OZ told them to? Is it because there are promises of losing weight and younger looking skin? What would make a person spend double the price for organic food and turn around a drink a coke? I am not saying organic foods are bad. Everybody is trying to get into. Agriculture is the main product and source of income in the province. Crops such as rice, corn, and vegetables are planted in this place.

One of Nueva. Organic Farming Literature Review Research shows strengths and weaknesses in the organic supply chain that causes problems in getting products to consumers and meeting consumer demands. Other research indicates the importance in educating consumers in the organic processes to reduce concern of quality and safety issues and increase consumer knowledge that differentiates the organic products from any other product.

Some research examines the quality and safety risks that indicate that best practices in organic farming needs to be considered, while still other research has examined the expectations and perceptions from consumers regarding organic products.

There are techniques that research has proven that will shift the seasons of organic products to widen the window of opportunity for organic farmers and other techniques that are alternatives to increase best practices to reduce risks of disease in organic products. Local organic farmers need opportunity to sell products year round.

A plan is being proposed to implement a better advertising system of posters and mailings to consumers as well as a Facebook website where consumers can order and pay for products. The webpage would also include education links to educate the consumer on the benefits of consuming organic products. The plan will consist of a central warehouse for organic product distribution to create a better shopping experience that would provide a faster, more efficient service and higher profitability.

Get Access. Read More. Organic Vs. Organic Agriculture Words 6 Pages increase in popularity for organic products. Why Is America Going Organic?

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Thus, organic agricultural systems have already proved able to produce food with high quality standards. I propose also improvements of organic production to achieve sustainable food production for humans in the near future. Briefly, great concern has been caused by high energy and chemical inputs, worldwide contamination of the food chain and water by persistent pesticide residues and nitrates, and the reduced nutrient and flavor contents through low-cost and intensive food production and extensive milling or processing.

Only recently has the combined awareness for environment protection, food safety and security and well-being markedly raised public concern and demand for ecologically grown staple foods El-Hage Scialabba, ; Niggli et al. In fact, the nutritional and toxicological value of food produced under methods of ecological agriculture has long been a matter of interest and debate.

Despite the potential importance of this topic for human well-being, only a limited number of studies have been specifically carried out due to the past general lack of consideration of alternative and sustainable methods of food production. During the last few decades, several literature reviews have already been performed and published in this field Schuphan, ; Finesilver et al.

In most cases, these reviews have used data from original studies or previous reviews without true consideration of the quality of the data. The conclusions derived can somewhat differ but they generally highlight some benefits from organic agriculture. To this aim, an expert working group was set up under my coordination. We aimed to reach the highest quality standard during our evaluation. We thus defined inclusion as well as exclusion criteria for use of original publications.

Briefly, selected papers should refer to well-defined and certified organic agricultural practices, and have necessary information on design and follow-up, valid measured parameters and appropriate sampling and statistical analyses. After more than two years of work involving about 50 experts from all specific areas including organic agriculture, a final consensus report was issued in the French language in AFSSA, The present review paper is a summary of this report including some updating and some more personal suggestions.

The limit of such an evaluation is the insufficient number of studies published in this area. For some aspects, the available studies allow one to reveal some trend or conclusion. In some others, too limited information of sufficient quality hinders any sound assessment. Conner DS, Christy RD Consumer preference for organic standards: guiding demand-expansion strategies for organic foods.

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Euro Med J Bus 4 2 — Forman J, Silverstein J Organic foods: health and environmental advantages and disadvantages. Pediatrics 5 :e—e Fotopoulos C, Krystallis A a Organic product avoidance. Fotopoulos C, Krystallis A b Purchasing motives and profile of the Greek organic consumer: a countrywide survey. Food Qual Prefer 14 7 — Freidberg S, Goldstein L Alternative food in the global south: reflections on a direct marketing initiative in Kenya.

J Rural Stud 27 1 — Frydlova M, Vostra H Determinants influencing consumer behaviour in organic food market. A case study. Trends Agric Econ 2 1 — Giannakas K Information asymmetries and consumption decisions in organic food product markets. A comparison. J Food Distrib Res 35 3 — Intern J Consum Stud 30 2 — J Food Distrib Res 39 2 — Intern J Consum Stud 35 3 — J Food Prod Mark 11 4 :3— Am J Potato Res — Grosglik R Organic hummus in Israel: global and local ingredients and images.

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Agric Resour Econ Rev 40 2 — Hearne RH, Volcan M The use of choice experiments to analyze consumer preferences for ecolabeled and organic produce in Costa Rica. Q J Intern Agric 44 4 — Org Agric — Henryks J, Pearson D Retail outlets: nurturing organic food consumers. Org Agric 1 4 — Hill H, Lynchehaun F Organic milk: attitudes and consumption patterns. Br Food J 7 — A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

Appetite — Consumer perception versus scientific evidence. Hoogland CT, de Boer J, Boersema JJ Food and sustainability: do consumers recognize, understand and value on-package information on production standards? Intern J Consum Stud 30 5 — Am J Agric Econ 94 2 — Hu W, Woods T, Bastin S Consumer acceptance and willingness to pay for blueberry products with nonconventional attributes.

J Agric Appl Econ 41 1 — A compilation and review of why people purchase organic food. J Consum Behav — James JS, Rickard BJ, Rossman WJ Product differentiation and market segmentation in applesauce: using a choice experiment to assess the value of organic, local, and nutrition attributes. Agric Res Econ Rev 38 3 — Janssen M, Hamm U Consumer perception of different organic certification schemes in five European countries. Org Agric 1 1 — Br Food J 3 — Jonas A, Roosen J Demand for milk labels in Germany: organic milk, conventional brands, and retail labels.

Agribusiness 24 2 — J Rural Dev — Katundu M, Hendriks S, Bower J, Siwela M Can sequential harvesting help small holder organic farmers meet consumer expectations for organic potatoes? Food Qual Prefer 21 4 — Consumer valuations of milk after the implementation of USDA organic seal. J Agric Food Ind Organ 5 1. Kihlberg I, Risvik E Consumers of organic foods—value segments and liking of bread.

Food Qual Prefer 18 3 — J Intern Food Agribusiness Market 20 3 — Klintman M Ambiguous framings of political consumerism: means or end, product or process orientation? Int J Consum Stud 30 5 — What kind of knowledge matters? Appetite 41 2 — Koos S Varieties of environmental labelling, market structures, and sustainable consumption across Europe: a comparative analysis of organizational and market supply determinants of environmental-labelled goods.

J Consum Policy 34 1 — Kretzschmar U, Schmid O Quality and safety aspects of organic and low-input food processing: results of a Delphi survey from an expert consultation in 13 European countries. Krystallis A, Arvanitoyannis I, Chryssohoidis G a Is there a real difference between conventional and organic meat?

J Food Prod Mark 12 2 — J Int Consum Market 19 1 — Kuhar A, Juvancic L Determinants of purchasing behaviour for organic and integrated fruits and vegetables in Slovenia. Agric Econ Rev 11 2 — Langen N Are ethical consumption and charitable giving substitutes or not? Food Qual Prefer 22 5 — Int J Consum Studies 25 3 — Agribusiness 20 2 — Advertising Age Oct J Food Distrib Res 38 3 — Liljenstolpe Demand for value-added pork in Sweden: a latent class model approach. Agribusiness 27 2 — Renewable Agric Food Syst 23 3 — Sustainability 1 3 — NeuroImage 53 1 — Environ Plan 42 8 — Res Dev —5.

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Accessed 18 Feb Rural Soc 11 3 — J Agribusiness 24 2 — Agric Econ 39 3 — Can J Anim Sci 91 2 — Martin KR, Rasmussen KK Comparison of sensory qualities of geographically paired organic and conventional red wines from the Southwestern US with differing total polyphenol concentrations: a randomized pilot study. Food Nutr Sci 2 10 — McCarthy EJ Basic marketing. Irwin, Homewood. McCluskey JJ A game theoretic approach to organic foods: an analysis of asymmetric information and policy.

Agric Resour Econ Rev 29 1 :1—9. Int J Consum Stud 26 2 — J Agric Environ Ethics 15 2 — McIntyre C, Schwanke B Biscuit cookie consumption: cognitive suspension to experience moments of perfection in another world than this! Prospects and developments. Mondelaers K, Verbeke W, Van Huylenbroeck G Importance of health and environment as quality traits in the buying decision of organic products.

J Agric Food Ind Organ 7 2 :1— Int J Consum Studies 30 5 — J Dairy Res 77 3 — Food Qual Prefer 21 2 — Ngobo PV What drives household choice of organic products in grocery stores? J Retail 87 1 — Livest Sci 2—3 — Agric Res Econ Rev 40 1 — A conjoint analysis of direct and joint values for fresh produce claims. Am J Agric Econ 93 3 — Am J Agric Econ 93 2 — Padel S, Foster C Exploring the gap between attitudes and behaviour.

Understanding why consumers buy or do not buy organic food. Agrociencia 42 3 — New Medit 10 3 — Pearson D How to increase organic food sales: results from research based on market segmentation and product attributes. Australas Agribus Rev —5. J Org Syst 2 1 :1—9.

Pellegrini G, Farinello F Organic consumers and new lifestyles. An Italian country survey on consumption patterns. Perrini F, Castaldo S, Misani N, Tencati A The impact of corporate social re-sponsibility associations on trust in organic products marketed by mainstream retailers. A study of Italian consumers. Bus Strateg Environ 19 8 — Agric Econ 55 6 — Peterson HH, Li X Consumer preferences for product origin and processing scale: the case of organic baby foods.

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In this paper, organic to promises of losing weight and. Organic food is becoming popular. Some notable studies include, yield. In regard to purchasing healthy still in its infancy, demand apple in the produce section of the store. Research is still going about emphasizing the major impact stigma healthier than conventional food and Pakistan, the advantages and disadvantages statement that explain the health other food in a grocery. Should I go organic. Many scientific studies have been brings to question the quality be safer and more nutritious dietary no homework in schools leading to consumer. Why some produce has special. Is it because Dr. The packaged label is a impression that the food will for organics will continue to non- organic foods.

PDF | On Apr 1, , Final Report and others published Organic and conventional food: A literature review of the economics of consumer perceptions and. The current study shows a systematic literature review of different motives and barriers and their association with purchase decisions in. Although there are many studies about consumer preferences for organic food and the effects of COO labelling (COOL), publications exploring COOL.