article review domestic violence with children

essay free online dictionary

Our writing correction service is very popular for many reasons. Some students want us to correct their CV or Good action words use resume, others an application letters for an important job or interview. Many students need to improve their writing skills to pass their exams, whereas other just want to improve their written English for general purposes. Whatever your reason, if you have an advanced level of English, we recommend you answer a selection of the following essay titles, and send them to us for correction. We correct your essays, giving you valuable feedback on your mistakes, and advice on how to improve your written expression in English. Find out more about our writing correction service here

Article review domestic violence with children javanet business plan

Article review domestic violence with children

Comparable degrees of attitude change occurred across those who had experienced abuse and those who had not experienced it. Although those in the intervention group indicated a higher likelihood of engaging in help-seeking behavior from pre- to post-test, this trend was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up data collection stage leading Fox et al.

Congruent with previous evaluation research, Fox et al. For prevention and support work in school to be effective, teachers themselves evidently need to feel supported by school processes and management Sterne and Poole, When addressing the needs of children living with domestic violence school staff should be prepared with information about services, signposting to external agencies, ensuring student safety, and knowing what to do next following disclosure.

Without this information, students could be put in a worse situation than before Howarth et al. Just as teachers need to have a clear understanding of their role in safeguarding children, so too they need to know the boundaries of their role. Research warns of the dangers of teachers acting beyond their professional scope such as asking a child to talk about their experiences without being suitably qualified which can have a traumatic effect on the child Swanston et al. A sensitive approach is needed to help both students and their parents already living with domestic violence.

The content, manner and personnel delivering domestic violence education in schools clearly require careful consideration to enhance student engagement and handle student vulnerability Fox et al. Different models of educational program delivery have been employed in school.

Some entail teachers delivering school-based initiatives themselves, others favor delivery from external specialists, while some opt for collaborative implementation. Although external facilitators have specialist knowledge, expertise and experience of discussing sensitive topics with young people, teachers have more in-depth knowledge of students and their individual circumstances Fox et al. Working in partnership with external facilitators provides a way for teachers to develop their professional learning and confidence.

The respective strengths of external specialists and teachers can be complemented through collaboration:. Ellis et al. The need for effective professional learning and training of school staff applies to the issue of interpersonal violence too. Cross-national European research in secondary high schools found that teachers frequently had limited confidence and knowledge to address the problem of interpersonal violence and abuse Barter et al. Findings from the study echoed domestic violence program evaluations in that rather than interpersonal violence and abuse being left to the efforts of an individual teacher championing the cause, the issue should be addressed at institutional level as a whole-school concern.

Schools have an essential role to play, then, in tackling domestic violence and the following section examines how recent policy and practice have the potential to influence work in this area. Following long-running campaign calls for the introduction of mandatory relationships and sex education RSE in schools, the United Kingdom government announced in March it will introduce compulsory lessons in all schools in England in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland RSE is expected but not compulsory.

Statutory curriculum content in schools promoting healthy relationships, and raising awareness of unhealthy relationships and the unacceptability of violence in relationships, is a positive step toward equipping young people for modern-day life. Educational settings present a valuable opportunity to promote mental wellbeing and prevent mental ill-health since half of all mental health conditions start by the age of 14 World Health Organization, There have also been long-standing concerns around high referral thresholds for external support services such as Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services CAMHS which some children affected by domestic violence have not been accepted for due to referral criteria Swanston et al.

Long waiting times to access such services have been a further source of distress; the average waiting time is 12 weeks but the longest is up to weeks Department of Health, and Department for Education [DOH and DFE], during which time problems can escalate requiring more intensive and more costly support.

Concerns have been raised about the added pressure these proposals would place on an already overstretched teaching workforce facing recruitment and retention difficulties, and about the level of funding needed to ensure teachers have well-developed training for the vital role of designated senior mental health lead Education and Health and Social Care Committees, With the number of young people with a diagnosable mental health condition standing at one in ten Department of Health, and Department for Education [DOH and DFE], , strategies aimed at addressing the causes and symptoms of mental health problems must be adequately resourced if they are to be effective.

The number of school nurses has been reduced in recent years. They are not always represented at child in need meetings, nor is relevant information always shared with them Ofsted et al. Furthermore, term time working arrangements for school nurses mean they are not available during school holidays.

School nurses attending relevant meetings and being employed during school holidays could facilitate greater consistency of care, better informed assessments, and improved multi-agency working. Coming to school hungry is not conducive to learning and some schools provide breakfast and breakfast clubs. Since those living in poverty are at increased risk of domestic violence, having breakfast at school at no cost, or reduced cost, can be a valuable means to aid learning.

For those impacted by domestic violence breakfast clubs can be an opportunity for quality time for parents and young children attending together Sterne and Poole, An evaluation of breakfast clubs set up in high deprivation areas in the United Kingdom found reduced hunger in students, enhanced concentration and behavior, and improved social skills Graham et al.

Many schools offer homework clubs too. Those in temporary accommodation as a result of domestic violence may lack space or computer access to do homework and homework clubs at school can be a facilitator of learning. Extra-curricular activities and after-school clubs can also provide positive experiences. While the cost of extra-curricular activities is sometimes prohibitive, schools can provide confidential financial assistance, although some parents may be reluctant to seek financial help.

Domestic abuse based on coercive control is another possible impediment to participation. Because coercive control can result in the abused parent, predominantly mothers, and their children becoming isolated and lacking opportunities for relationships with those beyond their immediate family, after-school clubs might be denied to these children but where participation is permitted they can be a means for children to develop social skills and confidence Katz, Paramount to effectively supporting students is the adoption of a holistic, child-centered approach.

School staff need to be able to confidently ask students if anything is wrong at home and take appropriate action Mullender et al. Research with young people affected by domestic violence found they valued teachers, tutors, learning mentors and school counselors in helping to identify abuse and access support Howarth et al.

In terms of educational attainment, additional learning support, perhaps in a one-to-one or small group context, could help improve the educational outcomes of students. This would require a sensitive approach, however, particularly as students get older and may not wish to be singled out from peers.

Early intervention strategies to help children and young people experiencing domestic violence can be strengthened through organizations engaging in joined-up thinking and working. An illustrative example is Operation Encompass, an early intervention initiative being piloted in selected areas of the United Kingdom which entails police notifying a school by 9 am if a child has witnessed or experienced a domestic abuse incident the previous evening 1.

A key adult at school the Designated Safeguarding Lead or Deputy is informed of the case and cascades information to teaching staff to allow immediate and ongoing support to be given to the child. Operation Encompass can explain to the school why a child is absent or has been dropped off at school by someone else.

The initiative is enabling police and schools to work in partnership to mitigate the impact of abuse and has the potential to be an exemplar of collaboration. The Freedom Programme 2 is another initiative being run, including in schools, to teach and empower victims of domestic violence to recognize signs of abuse and make positive changes in their lives. Organizations interested in the program need to make a commitment in terms of ensuring their staff are trained in the program and have time for implementing it.

Perhaps unsurprisingly, some teachers feel overwhelmed dealing with issues facing both children and their parents. Pressure on teachers to address problems among children and parents, such as increasing mental health issues, have left some feeling they are becoming like social workers. Mullender et al. This is not the same as becoming social workers, which teachers understandably fear in an already over-stretched working life and without the necessary training.

Rather, it means being an effective channel for children to gain access to welfare services outside of school, by opening up an early opportunity for them to confide that something is wrong. Despite good practices taking place in schools and with partner organizations, funding cuts in the United Kingdom have meant some support services for victims of domestic violence are no longer available Lloyd and Ramon, ; Ofsted et al.

Reduced funding has led to services being unable to offer support to all women and children referred to them, loss of welfare service staff, and lower capacity to deal with increasing referrals of women with complex needs. Children and parents, predominantly mothers, living with domestic violence have been impacted by cuts to services resulting in schools taking on a greater role in supporting them.

The role played by schools in supporting vulnerable children has implications for how teachers work with other agencies and in the next section I will look at how there can be tension between increased school autonomy and agencies working together.

Difficulties documented in research and governmental reports concerning inter-organizational working may be exacerbated by government policy devolving greater power to individual schools. Previously, state schools were funded by government and run by the local authority. Academy schools, initiated under the Labor government, and free schools under the Coalition government and subsequent Conservative government, are still state-funded but are not overseen by the local authority; they receive funding directly from central government affording them increased budgets.

With budgetary independence and increased autonomy for their own governance these schools are able to set the pay and conditions for staff rather than abiding by national teacher pay and conditions required of local authority-run schools. Academies and free schools are attended by over two-thirds of secondary school students and a quarter of primary school students Department for Education [DFE], b. Despite academy and free schools still being expected to liaise closely with local authorities on matters such as child protection and safeguarding, they have greater self-determination in shaping the relationship they have with local authorities Baginsky et al.

Academy and free school status also has a bearing on school staff training and continuing professional development CPD opportunities. Schools are thus operating in a market system, especially pertinent now the majority of secondary schools are academies with budgetary autonomy. Funding for school staff training comes, in part, from Pupil Premium grants given to schools in England to support the education of the most disadvantaged students.

Their budgetary independence means academy and free schools will have greater freedom to determine the nature and extent of staff training by external private providers. There have, however, been cuts in real terms in United Kingdom funding for education since Belfield et al. Greater school autonomy has additional implications for Local Safeguarding Children Boards LSCBs whose role is to coordinate local work to safeguard children.

As a multi-agency body LSCBs are attended by representatives from the local authority and relevant organizations such as health services and the police. However, research by Baginsky and Holmes indicates that increasing fragmentation of educational services has seen academy schools including free schools , and private fee-paying non-state schools being represented on less than half of LSCBs.

While over 80 percent of boards were represented at senior level by local authority schools, the same was true of only 20 percent of boards attended by academy schools Baginsky and Holmes, Given the spectrum of behavioral responses to domestic violence teachers need to be attuned to changes in children, some becoming withdrawn, others disruptive. Indeed, data show a growing number of students excluded from school have mental health needs Education and Health and Social Care Committees, , and children impacted by domestic violence Ofsted et al.

This is worrying in the context of schools focusing on examination results and league tables. Teachers and educationalists lament the marketization of education whereby examination results have become a key measure by which schools define themselves and are defined by others, and schools are set in competition with each other in the form of league tables Berry, ; Berry, ; Scott and Scott, Research with teachers shows such changes are negatively impacting teacher-student relationships and student wellbeing, with teachers reporting having less time to attend to the needs of individual students, and reporting that their own stress levels sometimes adversely affect their interaction with students Hutchings, Baginsky et al.

Where teacher performativity and student outcome measures in the form of examination results are at variance with the more holistic nurturing of students, efforts to support those impacted by domestic violence could be hampered and diminished. What happens in childhood and adolescence has profound implications for wellbeing in adult life. The prevalence of domestic violence as the most common factor cited in cases of children in need in England in — Department for Education [DFE], a emphasizes the need for addressing this enduring problem through prevention, early intervention and education.

Domestic violence must be addressed as a public health concern and not only as a privatized, individualized problem. Encouragingly there is some evidence of domestic violence research in the context of education, though it remains relatively under-investigated.

Some teachers and school support staff are themselves victims of domestically violent relationships and workplace support would be beneficial both for individuals and the school setting as a whole. Future research could usefully ask teachers and support staff their views on their professional learning and training needs in this important area of work.

Too frequently blame, shame and guilt cast a shadow over lives affected by domestic violence. Multi-agency working and in-school education and support can help prevent abuse and optimize outcomes for children, young people and their families living with the consequences of domestic violence. The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and has approved it for publication.

The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Baginsky, M. Thinking aloud: decentralisation and safeguarding in English schools. Care 23, — London: Local Government Association. Google Scholar. Baker, L. Early Child. Baldry, A.

Barter, C. Bristol: University of Bristol. Beckett, C. Child Protection, An Introduction , 2nd Edn. London: Sage Publications. Belfield, C. London: The Institute for Fiscal Studies. Berry, J. London: UCL. Calder, M. Callaghan, J. Violence 33, — Department for Education [DFE] Department for Education [DFE] a.

Characteristics of Children in Need: to England. Department for Education [DFE] b. Schools, Pupils and their Characteristics. Draft for Consultation. Digby, A. Impacts of Homelessness on Children — Research with Teachers. Report by Kantar Public Commissioned by Shelter. CrossRef Full Text. Dube, S. Childhood abuse, household dysfunction, and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span, findings from the adverse childhood experiences study.

JAMA , — PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Education and Health and Social Care Committees House of Commons. Ellis, J. Stanley and C. Humphreys London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers , 50— Humphreys and N. Stanley London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers , Etherington, N. Trauma Violence Abuse 19, 58— Felitti, V. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults, the adverse childhood experiences ACE study.

Fox, C. Evaluating the effectiveness of domestic abuse prevention education: are certain children more or less receptive to the messages conveyed? Legal Criminol. Domestic abuse prevention education: listening to the views of young people.

Sex Edu. Graham, N. Research Report March Hamby, S. Harne, L. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Harper, B. The effect of intimate partner violence on the psychosocial development of toddlers. HM Government London: HM Government.

Holt, K. Child Protection. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Home Office London: Home Office doi: Domestic Violence and Abuse: New Definition. House of Commons Education Committee London : House of Commons. Howarth E. Public Health Res.

Hughes, K. The effect of multiple adverse childhood experiences on health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Public Health 2, e—e Hutchings, M. Systematic review and critical appraisal of child abuse measurement instruments. Psychiatry Res. Article PubMed Google Scholar. European report on preventing child maltreatment. Challenges and burden of the Coronavirus COVID pandemic for child and adolescent mental health: a narrative review to highlight clinical and research needs in the acute phase and the long return to normality.

Child Adolesc Psychiatry Mental Health. Arch Psychiatry Res. Eisner M, Nivette A. Violence and the pandemic. Urgent questions for research. Physical child abuse demands increased awareness during health and socioeconomic crises like COVID a review and education material. Acta Orthop. Campbell AM. An increasing risk of family violence during the COVID pandemic: strengthening community collaborations to save lives. Forensic Sci Int Rep. Florence: Office of Research—Innocenti; Pandemics and violence against women and children.

A cloud on the horizon. Environ Res. Child abuse in natural disasters and conflicts: a systematic review. Trauma Violence Abuse. Child development in the context of disaster, war and terrorism: pathways of risk and resilience. Annu Rev Psychol. Advers Resil Sci. Why we need longitudinal mental health research with children and youth during and after the COVID pandemic.

Impact of COVID and lockdown on mental health of children and adolescents: a narrative review with recommendations. Testing the cycle of maltreatment hypothesis: meta-analytic evidence of the intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment. Dev Psychopathol. Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: real or detection bias?

The neural and computational systems of social learning. Nat Rev Neurosci. Mechanisms in the cycle of violence. Insecure adult attachment and child maltreatment: a meta-analysis. Can control theory explain the link between parental physical abuse and delinquency? A longitudinal analysis. J Res Crime Delinq. McEwen BS. Neurobiological and systemic effects of chronic stress.

Chronic Stress. Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Genes and aggressive behavior: epigenetic mechanisms underlying individual susceptibility to aversive environments. Front Behav Neurosci. How neighborhoods influence child maltreatment: a review of the literature and alternative pathways.

Child Abuse Negl. Wilcox P, Cullen FT. Situational opportunity theories of crime. Ann Rev Criminol. Agnew R. Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Finkelhor D, Asdigian NL. Violence Vict. Aneshensel CS. Social stress: theory and research. Ann Rev Sociol. Oishi S. Socioecological psychology. Belsky J. Child maltreatment: an ecological integration. Am Psychol.

An ecological—transactional model of child maltreatment. Handbook of developmental psychopathology. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers; Chapter Google Scholar. The social information processing model in child physical abuse and neglect: a meta-analytic review. Griffith AK. J Fam Violence. JAMA Pediatr. Lee J. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. Child maltreatment as a function of cumulative family risk: findings from the intensive family preservation program.

Reynolds J, Wilkinson C. Drug Alcohol Rev. Victimization and perpetration of violence involving persons with mood and other psychiatric disorders and their relatives. Psychiatr Serv. Bridging the gaps: a global review of intersections of violence against women and violence against children. Glob Health Action. Staying home, staying safe? Am J Crim Justice. Men not at work: gender-specific labor market conditions and child maltreatment.

J Public Econ. Conrad-Hiebner A, Byram E. The temporal impact of economic insecurity on child maltreatment: a systematic review. Int J Mental Health Nurs. Recognising and responding to child maltreatment. Sandner M, Thomsen SL. Preventing child maltreatment: Beneficial side effects of public childcare provision. Hannover Economic Papers, Data-informed recommendations for services providers working with vulnerable children and families during the COVID pandemic.

Ludvigsson JF. Acta Paediatr. Arch Dis Child. Larcher V, Brierley J. J Med Ethics. Andrews DA, Bonta J. The psychology of criminal conduct. Risk factors for child sexual abuse victimization: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Bull. Nat Hum Behav. Braz J Psychiatry. Bradbury-Jones C, Isham L. J Clin Nurs. Download references. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. NP, and DA contributed to the design and implementation of the review, to the analysis of the studies included and to the writing of the manuscript.

Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material.

If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Reprints and Permissions. Pereda, N. Family violence against children in the wake of COVID pandemic: a review of current perspectives and risk factors.

Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 14, 40 Download citation. Received : 15 July Accepted : 07 October Published : 20 October Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Background In terms of their frequency and impact, violence and exposure to violence in the immediate family context are among the most serious forms of victimization [ 1 ].

Increasing risk of violence against children during the COVID pandemic The COVID pandemic may have entailed major changes for many children and their families, not just because of the lockdown, restricted measures, social isolation, changing demographics and the reduction of available health services [ 14 ], but also due to the sudden and possibly long-term increase in child poverty and family uncertainty [ 15 ]. Increased risk of violence through the lens of criminological theories Criminological theories address the multiple variables that contribute to family violence and child abuse, and can also explain why there is a greater risk of violence in critical situations.

Increased risk of violence through the lens of socioecological models Socioecological accounts can provide a general framework of how the COVID pandemic has directly or indirectly disrupted social ecologies and modified the interaction between individuals and their environment. Conclusion The present review is one of the few studies to date that has focused on the risk factors for family violence against children and youth related to the COVID pandemic. Availability of data and materials Not applicable.

References 1.

ON HOW TO WRITE A REPORT FOR

An important aspect to be considered in the study of violence in general is that the concept does not refer to a unique phenomenon. Its definition, forms of expression, level of tolerance by communities, and the role it plays in the lives of individuals present many differences.

The multi-faceted forms of expressions for violence listed in this article are a good example of this claim Table 4. The variety of methodologies that have been used to investigate the issue provides evidence of its fecundity. The observed predominance of co-relational studies Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 24 5 , Still regarding the methodology, it is noteworthy that no intervention studies were found.

However, the lack of publications does not necessarily mean that such studies were not performed. It may simply indicate that the complexity of the phenomenon and the lack of uniformity make it difficult to frame strategies of action, since the notion of violence has broad implications in different segments of individual and collective life and also relates to socio-cultural contexts in which the implementation of public policies to assist victims and perpetrators is especially problematic.

Holt, Buckley and Whelan Holt, S. The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: A review of the literature. According to the authors, the context of violence between the parents, in addition to being a form of emotional abuse, is considered a risk factor for physical and sexual victimization as well as for the neglect of the children. Regarding parental capability, the authors indicated that, in the context of inter-parental violence, authoritarianism, control and aggression tend to be child-rearing strategies adopted both by fathers who abuse their partners and by victimized mothers.

These authors described the ambivalence caused in these children by circumstances in which a parent can be perceived as abusive and at the same time loving. Younger children may exhibit symptoms such as excessive fear, anxiety, problems with verbalizing emotions, aggressive behavior, possessiveness, stomach aches, insomnia, nightmares and bedwetting.

As they grow older, they tend to seek explanations for the violent behavior of their parents and might blame themselves for the violence between their parents and even feel responsible for protecting the victims. Problems at school, in relationships with peers and in romantic relationships established during life may also be related to these experiences. Accordingly, one aim of this study was to identify the main problems for children associated with witnessing domestic violence.

In our sample there was a prevalence of depressive symptoms, insecurity and posttraumatic stress disorder Gerais: Revista Interinstitucional de Psicologia, 4 2 , Regarding the physiological, emotional and psychological symptoms, authors such as Cui, Donnelan and Conger Cui, M.

Developmental Psychology, 43 6 , Interparental conflict, parenting, and childhood depression in a diverse urban population: The role of general cognitive style. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39 1 , Child Maltreatment, 14 3 , Journal of Family Psychology, 22 5 , Marital conflict and preadolescent behavioral competence: Maternal knowledge as a longitudinal mediator.

Journal of Family Psychology, 21 4 , Interparental conflict and academic achievement: An examination of mediating and moderating factors. Traumatic events and maternal education as predictors of verbal ability for preschool children exposed to intimate partner violence IPV.

Journal of Family Violence, 25 4 , These studies also revealed that, having been exposed to violence, some children showed a negative response to violence, avoiding aggressive and violent behavior with teachers and peers. Kelleher et al. Self-reported disciplinary practices among women in the child welfare system: Association with domestic violence victimization.

Thus, caution is needed against rash generalizations. Factors discriminating among profiles of resilience and psychopathology in children exposed to intimate partner violence IPV. Despite the variety of factors to be considered in the context of exposure to domestic violence and even the absence of symptoms or disruptive behaviors in some children, the impact of this experience is undeniable as a risk factor for the development of children and adolescents.

The paramount importance of this subject matter increases as the research findings indicate a general lack of strategic action in the analyzed data. It is essential therefore to identify the problem and adopt appropriate intervention strategies in the various public services meant to care for children, especially the healthcare and education systems. The knowledge of the context in which the child is inserted seems crucial to indicate methods of prevention and abridgment of the negative effects of violence.

One must also consider that children who witness family conflicts are often inserted into the civil or criminal justice system. This factor may affect their psychological development, and therefore requires certain precautions prior to such a reality Sani, Sani, A. We could not end this paper without suggesting some guidelines for professionals who deal with the exposure of children to violence.

The Policy for the Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality caused by Accidents and Violence Brazil, includes the promotion of safe behaviors, monitoring of accidents and violence, training professionals for comprehensive action in the context of violence, and supports the development of new research in the area.

The data of are biased because they include only publications up to the month of April. Abrir menu Brasil. Abrir menu. CEP Juiz de Fora-MG, Brazil. Results Considering the production per year, there was a gradual increase in publications, which showed higher concentrations in the year , given the fact that, with the year still in progress in the first quarter of , the search was partial.

Table 2 Publications by Journal. Table 3 Authors by Publication in the Period References Archer, J. Bandura, A. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral risk factor surveillance system: summary data quality report. Costa, V. Cui, M. Deslandes, S. Edleson, J. Ghazarian, S. Graham-Bermann, S. Grundy, A. Holt, S. Kelleher, K. Krug, E. Maldonado, D. McDonald, R. Minayo, M. Portaria GM No. Reichenheim, M. The magnitude of intimate partner violence in Brazil: Portraits from 15 capital cities and the Federal District.

Reveles, A. Salisbury, E. Saltzman, L. Senra, L. Shelton, K. Stelko-Pereira, A. Venturini, F. Whiteside-Mansell, L. Zanoti-Jeronymo, D. Publication Dates Publication in this collection May-Aug This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Luciana Xavier Senra 2. Tables 4. Trust in professionals plays a key role in domestic violence disclosure. Experiences of abuse can lead to young people having diminished trust in adults and in their ability to support and protect them, sometimes a consequence of teachers in school not acting upon student disclosure of abuse in the home Swanston et al. Teachers building trust with young people is therefore of vital importance.

Prevention programs in school are more effective when promoted through whole-school policies and practices than through single-component programs or individual teachers Harne and Radford, Program evaluations also show that while one-off education initiatives have some value in raising awareness of domestic violence, attitudinal change is better sustained when learning is revisited and reinforced in subsequent years Harne and Radford, Furthermore, where prevention programs in schools include a male facilitator, there is a higher likelihood of boys changing their attitudes Ellis et al.

A more recent evaluation of a United Kingdom school-based domestic violence prevention program was undertaken by Fox et al. They evaluated a 6-week education program 1 h each week delivered by domestic abuse practitioners in seven secondary high schools and compared participant questionnaire responses with those of participants in six schools not receiving the intervention program. The study had a total of 1, participants.

When pre- and post-test responses were statistically analyzed, findings showed that boys and girls alike who had participated in the intervention program became less accepting of domestic violence and were more likely to seek help for abuse in comparison to those in the control group. Comparable degrees of attitude change occurred across those who had experienced abuse and those who had not experienced it. Although those in the intervention group indicated a higher likelihood of engaging in help-seeking behavior from pre- to post-test, this trend was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up data collection stage leading Fox et al.

Congruent with previous evaluation research, Fox et al. For prevention and support work in school to be effective, teachers themselves evidently need to feel supported by school processes and management Sterne and Poole, When addressing the needs of children living with domestic violence school staff should be prepared with information about services, signposting to external agencies, ensuring student safety, and knowing what to do next following disclosure.

Without this information, students could be put in a worse situation than before Howarth et al. Just as teachers need to have a clear understanding of their role in safeguarding children, so too they need to know the boundaries of their role. Research warns of the dangers of teachers acting beyond their professional scope such as asking a child to talk about their experiences without being suitably qualified which can have a traumatic effect on the child Swanston et al.

A sensitive approach is needed to help both students and their parents already living with domestic violence. The content, manner and personnel delivering domestic violence education in schools clearly require careful consideration to enhance student engagement and handle student vulnerability Fox et al. Different models of educational program delivery have been employed in school. Some entail teachers delivering school-based initiatives themselves, others favor delivery from external specialists, while some opt for collaborative implementation.

Although external facilitators have specialist knowledge, expertise and experience of discussing sensitive topics with young people, teachers have more in-depth knowledge of students and their individual circumstances Fox et al. Working in partnership with external facilitators provides a way for teachers to develop their professional learning and confidence. The respective strengths of external specialists and teachers can be complemented through collaboration:.

Ellis et al. The need for effective professional learning and training of school staff applies to the issue of interpersonal violence too. Cross-national European research in secondary high schools found that teachers frequently had limited confidence and knowledge to address the problem of interpersonal violence and abuse Barter et al.

Findings from the study echoed domestic violence program evaluations in that rather than interpersonal violence and abuse being left to the efforts of an individual teacher championing the cause, the issue should be addressed at institutional level as a whole-school concern. Schools have an essential role to play, then, in tackling domestic violence and the following section examines how recent policy and practice have the potential to influence work in this area.

Following long-running campaign calls for the introduction of mandatory relationships and sex education RSE in schools, the United Kingdom government announced in March it will introduce compulsory lessons in all schools in England in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland RSE is expected but not compulsory. Statutory curriculum content in schools promoting healthy relationships, and raising awareness of unhealthy relationships and the unacceptability of violence in relationships, is a positive step toward equipping young people for modern-day life.

Educational settings present a valuable opportunity to promote mental wellbeing and prevent mental ill-health since half of all mental health conditions start by the age of 14 World Health Organization, There have also been long-standing concerns around high referral thresholds for external support services such as Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services CAMHS which some children affected by domestic violence have not been accepted for due to referral criteria Swanston et al.

Long waiting times to access such services have been a further source of distress; the average waiting time is 12 weeks but the longest is up to weeks Department of Health, and Department for Education [DOH and DFE], during which time problems can escalate requiring more intensive and more costly support. Concerns have been raised about the added pressure these proposals would place on an already overstretched teaching workforce facing recruitment and retention difficulties, and about the level of funding needed to ensure teachers have well-developed training for the vital role of designated senior mental health lead Education and Health and Social Care Committees, With the number of young people with a diagnosable mental health condition standing at one in ten Department of Health, and Department for Education [DOH and DFE], , strategies aimed at addressing the causes and symptoms of mental health problems must be adequately resourced if they are to be effective.

The number of school nurses has been reduced in recent years. They are not always represented at child in need meetings, nor is relevant information always shared with them Ofsted et al. Furthermore, term time working arrangements for school nurses mean they are not available during school holidays.

School nurses attending relevant meetings and being employed during school holidays could facilitate greater consistency of care, better informed assessments, and improved multi-agency working. Coming to school hungry is not conducive to learning and some schools provide breakfast and breakfast clubs. Since those living in poverty are at increased risk of domestic violence, having breakfast at school at no cost, or reduced cost, can be a valuable means to aid learning.

For those impacted by domestic violence breakfast clubs can be an opportunity for quality time for parents and young children attending together Sterne and Poole, An evaluation of breakfast clubs set up in high deprivation areas in the United Kingdom found reduced hunger in students, enhanced concentration and behavior, and improved social skills Graham et al.

Many schools offer homework clubs too. Those in temporary accommodation as a result of domestic violence may lack space or computer access to do homework and homework clubs at school can be a facilitator of learning. Extra-curricular activities and after-school clubs can also provide positive experiences. While the cost of extra-curricular activities is sometimes prohibitive, schools can provide confidential financial assistance, although some parents may be reluctant to seek financial help.

Domestic abuse based on coercive control is another possible impediment to participation. Because coercive control can result in the abused parent, predominantly mothers, and their children becoming isolated and lacking opportunities for relationships with those beyond their immediate family, after-school clubs might be denied to these children but where participation is permitted they can be a means for children to develop social skills and confidence Katz, Paramount to effectively supporting students is the adoption of a holistic, child-centered approach.

School staff need to be able to confidently ask students if anything is wrong at home and take appropriate action Mullender et al. Research with young people affected by domestic violence found they valued teachers, tutors, learning mentors and school counselors in helping to identify abuse and access support Howarth et al. In terms of educational attainment, additional learning support, perhaps in a one-to-one or small group context, could help improve the educational outcomes of students.

This would require a sensitive approach, however, particularly as students get older and may not wish to be singled out from peers. Early intervention strategies to help children and young people experiencing domestic violence can be strengthened through organizations engaging in joined-up thinking and working.

An illustrative example is Operation Encompass, an early intervention initiative being piloted in selected areas of the United Kingdom which entails police notifying a school by 9 am if a child has witnessed or experienced a domestic abuse incident the previous evening 1.

A key adult at school the Designated Safeguarding Lead or Deputy is informed of the case and cascades information to teaching staff to allow immediate and ongoing support to be given to the child. Operation Encompass can explain to the school why a child is absent or has been dropped off at school by someone else.

The initiative is enabling police and schools to work in partnership to mitigate the impact of abuse and has the potential to be an exemplar of collaboration. The Freedom Programme 2 is another initiative being run, including in schools, to teach and empower victims of domestic violence to recognize signs of abuse and make positive changes in their lives.

Organizations interested in the program need to make a commitment in terms of ensuring their staff are trained in the program and have time for implementing it. Perhaps unsurprisingly, some teachers feel overwhelmed dealing with issues facing both children and their parents.

Pressure on teachers to address problems among children and parents, such as increasing mental health issues, have left some feeling they are becoming like social workers. Mullender et al. This is not the same as becoming social workers, which teachers understandably fear in an already over-stretched working life and without the necessary training. Rather, it means being an effective channel for children to gain access to welfare services outside of school, by opening up an early opportunity for them to confide that something is wrong.

Despite good practices taking place in schools and with partner organizations, funding cuts in the United Kingdom have meant some support services for victims of domestic violence are no longer available Lloyd and Ramon, ; Ofsted et al. Reduced funding has led to services being unable to offer support to all women and children referred to them, loss of welfare service staff, and lower capacity to deal with increasing referrals of women with complex needs.

Children and parents, predominantly mothers, living with domestic violence have been impacted by cuts to services resulting in schools taking on a greater role in supporting them. The role played by schools in supporting vulnerable children has implications for how teachers work with other agencies and in the next section I will look at how there can be tension between increased school autonomy and agencies working together. Difficulties documented in research and governmental reports concerning inter-organizational working may be exacerbated by government policy devolving greater power to individual schools.

Previously, state schools were funded by government and run by the local authority. Academy schools, initiated under the Labor government, and free schools under the Coalition government and subsequent Conservative government, are still state-funded but are not overseen by the local authority; they receive funding directly from central government affording them increased budgets. With budgetary independence and increased autonomy for their own governance these schools are able to set the pay and conditions for staff rather than abiding by national teacher pay and conditions required of local authority-run schools.

Academies and free schools are attended by over two-thirds of secondary school students and a quarter of primary school students Department for Education [DFE], b. Despite academy and free schools still being expected to liaise closely with local authorities on matters such as child protection and safeguarding, they have greater self-determination in shaping the relationship they have with local authorities Baginsky et al.

Academy and free school status also has a bearing on school staff training and continuing professional development CPD opportunities. Schools are thus operating in a market system, especially pertinent now the majority of secondary schools are academies with budgetary autonomy. Funding for school staff training comes, in part, from Pupil Premium grants given to schools in England to support the education of the most disadvantaged students.

Their budgetary independence means academy and free schools will have greater freedom to determine the nature and extent of staff training by external private providers. There have, however, been cuts in real terms in United Kingdom funding for education since Belfield et al. Greater school autonomy has additional implications for Local Safeguarding Children Boards LSCBs whose role is to coordinate local work to safeguard children.

As a multi-agency body LSCBs are attended by representatives from the local authority and relevant organizations such as health services and the police. However, research by Baginsky and Holmes indicates that increasing fragmentation of educational services has seen academy schools including free schools , and private fee-paying non-state schools being represented on less than half of LSCBs. While over 80 percent of boards were represented at senior level by local authority schools, the same was true of only 20 percent of boards attended by academy schools Baginsky and Holmes, Given the spectrum of behavioral responses to domestic violence teachers need to be attuned to changes in children, some becoming withdrawn, others disruptive.

Indeed, data show a growing number of students excluded from school have mental health needs Education and Health and Social Care Committees, , and children impacted by domestic violence Ofsted et al. This is worrying in the context of schools focusing on examination results and league tables. Teachers and educationalists lament the marketization of education whereby examination results have become a key measure by which schools define themselves and are defined by others, and schools are set in competition with each other in the form of league tables Berry, ; Berry, ; Scott and Scott, Research with teachers shows such changes are negatively impacting teacher-student relationships and student wellbeing, with teachers reporting having less time to attend to the needs of individual students, and reporting that their own stress levels sometimes adversely affect their interaction with students Hutchings, Baginsky et al.

Where teacher performativity and student outcome measures in the form of examination results are at variance with the more holistic nurturing of students, efforts to support those impacted by domestic violence could be hampered and diminished. What happens in childhood and adolescence has profound implications for wellbeing in adult life. The prevalence of domestic violence as the most common factor cited in cases of children in need in England in — Department for Education [DFE], a emphasizes the need for addressing this enduring problem through prevention, early intervention and education.

Domestic violence must be addressed as a public health concern and not only as a privatized, individualized problem. Encouragingly there is some evidence of domestic violence research in the context of education, though it remains relatively under-investigated. Some teachers and school support staff are themselves victims of domestically violent relationships and workplace support would be beneficial both for individuals and the school setting as a whole.

Future research could usefully ask teachers and support staff their views on their professional learning and training needs in this important area of work. Too frequently blame, shame and guilt cast a shadow over lives affected by domestic violence. Multi-agency working and in-school education and support can help prevent abuse and optimize outcomes for children, young people and their families living with the consequences of domestic violence.

The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and has approved it for publication. The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Baginsky, M. Thinking aloud: decentralisation and safeguarding in English schools. Care 23, — London: Local Government Association. Google Scholar. Baker, L. Early Child. Baldry, A. Barter, C. Bristol: University of Bristol. Beckett, C. Child Protection, An Introduction , 2nd Edn. London: Sage Publications. Belfield, C. London: The Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Berry, J. London: UCL. Calder, M. Callaghan, J. Violence 33, — Department for Education [DFE] Department for Education [DFE] a. Characteristics of Children in Need: to England. Department for Education [DFE] b. Schools, Pupils and their Characteristics. Draft for Consultation. Digby, A. Impacts of Homelessness on Children — Research with Teachers. Report by Kantar Public Commissioned by Shelter. CrossRef Full Text. Dube, S.

Childhood abuse, household dysfunction, and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span, findings from the adverse childhood experiences study. JAMA , — PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Education and Health and Social Care Committees House of Commons. Ellis, J. Stanley and C. Humphreys London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers , 50— Humphreys and N. Stanley London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers , Etherington, N.

Trauma Violence Abuse 19, 58— Felitti, V. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults, the adverse childhood experiences ACE study. Fox, C. Evaluating the effectiveness of domestic abuse prevention education: are certain children more or less receptive to the messages conveyed?

Legal Criminol. Domestic abuse prevention education: listening to the views of young people. Sex Edu. Graham, N. Research Report March Hamby, S. Harne, L. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Harper, B. The effect of intimate partner violence on the psychosocial development of toddlers. HM Government London: HM Government.

Holt, K. Child Protection. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Home Office

BEST ARTICLE REVIEW EDITOR WEBSITE ONLINE

Selecionaram-se artigos. World report on violence and health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. According to the WHO, there are three categories of violent behavior: self-inflicted violence, interpersonal violence and collective violence. Examples of the first type are: suicide, attempts to commit suicide and self-mutilation.

Interpersonal violence occurs between people with family relationships between partners, aimed at children or the elderly or not actions taken by strangers or colleagues in the community context. Collective violence is subdivided into political, social and economic.

These latter subdivisions relate to possible motivations for acts committed by large groups of individuals or states, such as wars and even the denial of public access to essential services Krug et al, Krug, E. Williams, J. Rios Orgs. Intimate partner violence surveillance: Uniform definitions and recommended data elements. Version 1,0. Sex differences in physically aggressive acts between heterosexual partners: A meta-analytic review.

Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7 4 , The most commonly observed and described acts of aggression in the family or inter-parental context are physical, psychological and sexual in nature. They are characterized by slaps, punches and kicks, intimidation, humiliation and disqualification, or involve forced intercourse and other forms of coercion.

Other forms of controlling behavior are also observed and understood as violence, such as monitoring the movements, isolation from friends and other family members, and restricting access to information and assistance Krug et al, Krug, E.

La violencia de pareja contra las mujeres y los servicios de salud. In these situations the family context is no longer seen as a primordial space of acceptance and support. According to Sani Sani, A. Coimbra, Portugal: Quarteto. Maldonado and Williams Maldonado, D. Psicologia em Estudo, 10 3 , Edleson, Shin and Armendariz Edleson, J.

Children and Youth Services Review, 30 5 , It also includes the lack of basic care to their children. It is worth noting that a child or adolescent might be affected by more than one type of violence, especially in chronic and severe circumstances where these situations are related Brazil, The scientific literature provides indicators showing that children might imitate and perform, in other contexts, the aggressive behavior by simply observing violent models such as the case of witnessing violence between the parents.

Porto Alegre, RS: Artmed. Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Green, Classics in the history of psychology. The care provided to children by the family, by other social groups and institutions greatly influences their chances of survival and dramatically improves their quality of life. Despite the difficulty in measuring the situations of violence in the family context, data collected in 15 Brazilian capitals and the Federal District between and suggested an overall prevalence of psychological aggression of about The occurrence of minor physical abuse affected With regard to the prevalence of exposure of children to such violence, a nationally representative study was conducted in municipalities between the and in which the results indicated that Of these cases Based on the aforementioned, in order to investigate the academic and scientific production on the subject, with the aim of understanding the manifestations of family violence and the impact for victims who witness the phenomenon, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature through a bibliometric study on the consequences of exposure to domestic violence for children.

The electronic search was conducted in the following databases: Medline publications which deals with health sciences in general , Web of Science multidisciplinary database that aggregates content from journals of greater academic impact from different academic sectors ; Dialnet Iberian multidisciplinary database composed of journals and books from Spanish and Portuguese Universities ; Redalyc network of scientific journals of Latin America and the Caribbean, Portugal and Spain, including journals in various areas, with social sciences and humanities the areas of greatest concentration ; Google Scholar database created by Google, which can search in multiple languages, providing links to libraries of various universities ; and PsycInfo offers psychological literature, linked to the American Psychological Association.

These were chosen so as to obtain publications from the most diverse countries and to try to identify the impact of this theme in publications worldwide. It is noteworthy that the use of the terminology in English aimed at reaching the broadest range of national and international publications in these data bases, which display dictionaries of search terms mostly in English and not just in their national languages.

The result of this search was refined by the exclusion of books, book chapters, monographs and theses. We selected only articles published from until the month of April the date closest to the preparation of this manuscript , which totaled publications. Repeated articles, those with limited access or not related to the subject matter, according to the reading of the Abstracts were discarded. The final result was a sample of articles.

Initially, we quantified the information regarding year of publication, country of origin, journal, type of study and authors. Considering the production per year, there was a gradual increase in publications, which showed higher concentrations in the year , given the fact that, with the year still in progress in the first quarter of , the search was partial.

Regarding the indexes by country, the United States, Brazil, Portugal, Spain and Canada were the countries, in descending order, which most published on the subject in the period studied, as shown in Table 1. The analysis of journals with articles on the topic is presented in Table 2. It is possible to identify the journals with the greatest impact on the research during the period and their respective percentage of participation in the sample: Journal of Interpersonal Violence 8.

Thumbnail Table 2 Publications by Journal. The Journal of Interpersonal Violence is an English-language publication in which the aim is to discuss research and the treatment of victims and perpetrators of interpersonal violence. The remaining journals each had 0. Regarding the type of methodology used and specified in each article, the following results were found: Concerning the authorship of the publications, the survey also identified the percentage of publications by group of authors, as can be seen in Table 3.

Author groups with the highest percentages were: 1 Sani AI, with 3. The other groups of authors for each publication had 0. The authorship survey also allowed a percentual assessment of those who published as first, second and third authors. Sani, A. Other authors in similar authorship conditions were: Graham-Bermann with 2. Among the problems associated with the exposure of children to domestic violence, the most significant ones had a direct impact on the physical and psychological health of the victims as well as on their daily lives.

Predominant symptoms of depression, insecurity and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD , also known as internalizing symptoms, were observed in With regard to manifestations of violence in the context of exposing children to domestic violence, among the articles identified, 77 descriptions were analyzed for this phenomenon, reflecting eight different modalities, as can be seen in Table 4. Among these descriptions, 25 addressed physical violence; 22 sexual violence; 21 psychological violence; 4 economic violence; 2 abandonment or neglect; 1 emotional and verbal violence, and 1 addressed patrimonial violence.

The study design enabled the construction of a landscape that characterizes, in some respects, the recent scientific knowledge about the exposure of children to domestic violence, a phenomenon of academic interest for the practice of professionals who work either with children or families. An increasing number of recent publications addressing the issue were detected. This fact confirms the prominence the issue has taken in the academic milieu. Indeed, various fields of knowledge have focused on the phenomenon with highlights for the Health area, in which it is now considered a public health problem.

The U. The second most productive country was Brazil with Regarding the most productive author, Ana Isabel Martinez Sani leads the position of first and second author, totaling 4. This author is a professor at the University Fernando Pessoa, Portugal, a country with an established research tradition on domestic violence. Sani Sani, A. However, she points out that this experience can be perceived as stressful and traumatic for the child and may trigger psycho-physiological changes, which can become severe, persistent and disruptive, features of the so-called Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

According to the author, and in agreement with Venturini et al. Estudos e Pesquisas em Psicologia, 4 1 , An important aspect to be considered in the study of violence in general is that the concept does not refer to a unique phenomenon. Its definition, forms of expression, level of tolerance by communities, and the role it plays in the lives of individuals present many differences. The multi-faceted forms of expressions for violence listed in this article are a good example of this claim Table 4.

The variety of methodologies that have been used to investigate the issue provides evidence of its fecundity. The observed predominance of co-relational studies Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 24 5 , Still regarding the methodology, it is noteworthy that no intervention studies were found. However, the lack of publications does not necessarily mean that such studies were not performed. It may simply indicate that the complexity of the phenomenon and the lack of uniformity make it difficult to frame strategies of action, since the notion of violence has broad implications in different segments of individual and collective life and also relates to socio-cultural contexts in which the implementation of public policies to assist victims and perpetrators is especially problematic.

Holt, Buckley and Whelan Holt, S. Participants were recruited from several settings in a two-county area of Pennsylvania: child welfare abuse and protective service programs, Head Start classrooms, day care programs, and private middle income nursery school programs. Three waves of data were collected at key developmental points for children preschool, school age, and adolescence , and a fourth adult wave of the study is now underway. An initial assessment of children and their families was completed in , when children were of preschool age.

The second wave of data collection occurred between and , when the children were between 8 and 11 years of age. The third assessment was completed in , when the children ranged from age 14 to 23 average age: 18 years. The full longitudinal sample includes children from families: children from child welfare abuse programs, from child welfare protective service programs, 70 from Head Start, 64 from day care programs, and 74 from nursery school programs. The present analyses are conducted using data from the individuals assessed across all three waves of data collection.

The racial breakdown of the full sample is: The ethnic composition is: 7. These percentages were consistent with the makeup of the two-county area at the time the original sample was drawn. Eighty-six percent of children were, at the time of initial assessment, from two-parent households.

Of the participants assessed in adolescence, By the time of the adolescent assessment, four participants had died: two children in the child welfare abuse group, one in the child welfare neglect group, and one child in the middle-income group. The percentage lost to attrition varied somewhat across groups: child welfare abuse Further tests for comparability between attriters and non-attriters found no differences on other key variables, including childhood SES, physically abusive discipline, and exposure to domestic violence.

Data for the preschool and school-age assessments are from interviews with parents. Data for the adolescent assessment are from face-to-face interviews and individually administered questionnaires with parents and youth. The adolescent youth survey provides information on parenting practices, youth behavior, youth psychological functioning, and youth school experiences. All phases of the study were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board at Lehigh University.

Consent and assent for children and adolescents was obtained from study participants during all waves of data collection. Severe physical disciplining was assessed with self-reports from mothers and adolescents and includes: biting a child; slapping so as to bruise a child; hitting a child with a stick, paddle or other hard object; or hitting a child with a strap, rope, or belt. Those who were disciplined with two or more severe physical discipline practices were considered to have been maltreated.

A threshold of two or more incidents was set to eliminate isolated cases of severe physical discipline from an otherwise non-abusive parent. Individuals for whom there was agreement in the prospective parent report and retrospective adolescent report were added to those identified by official records as abuse victims. This procedure allows us to take advantage of the multiple sources of data available in the study. By requiring evidence of abuse on both the prospective and retrospective self-report measures before identifying a child as a victim of abuse, we lessen the potential measurement bias that can be introduced by using a single data source Herrenkohl et al.

In addition, requiring cross-informant agreement increases the likelihood that violence exposure did occur. Although this may underestimate the number of exposed children by excluding cases for which abuse or DV exposure was identified by only one source, we can be more certain that those who are included are not falsely classified.

The dichotomous domestic violence exposure variable used here includes three types of moderately severe domestic violence behaviors by either parent: physical violence hitting, punching, kicking , threats to do physical harm, and breaking things. Again, to take advantage of various data sources and to limit potential measurement error, we required agreement between prospective parent and retrospective adolescent self-reports.

In cases where parental reports and adolescent reports differed in their responses about whether domestic violence behaviors had occurred, the case was coded conservatively i. To assess adolescent psychosocial functioning and behavior, we used items from the Achenbach Youth Self Report YSR Achenbach, b completed by youth participants in the adolescent wave of the study. Subscales of the internalizing and externalizing composite scales were scored and used in the reported analyses.

The second is a general measure of delinquency. This scale was originally developed for the National Youth Survey and is widely used in studies of youth behavior and development Elliott, These final two outcomes were added to analyses so as not to rely exclusively on variables derived from a single standardized instrument and to allow cross-validation of results on two key constructs of interest: depression and delinquency.

Race and age of youth were also included in the risk scale to capture demographics known to be associated with higher scores on our outcome constructs: Parent personal problems included responses to survey items about current stressors in the family, as reported by parents at the time. As a preliminary step in the analysis, parent personal problems, external constraints, race, and age were entered simultaneously into a logistic regression model with any violence exposure including domestic violence, child abuse, or both exposures as the outcome.

All four of these variables were found to be significantly predictive of violence exposure. The scores of the regression model then were used to calculate a total predicted probability value for each participant. Using this predicted risk composite score technique for regression adjustment allowed us to control parsimoniously for other variables related to child abuse and domestic violence Bauer et al. The mean of this predicted risk composite was 0. The violence exposure groups were entered as a set of dummy variables with gender entered simultaneously as a covariate.

Models were run first without the risk composite, and then again with that measure added to determine whether relationships between violence exposure and the outcomes persisted after accounting for other known risk factors for the outcomes in question.

Models were also run to test whether gender moderated the effect of violence exposure on the outcomes by adding interaction terms for gender and the violence exposure variables. None of the gender interaction terms were statistically significant, indicating that the models should be estimated, and assumed to be comparable, for boys and girls together. However, to account for possible gender differences in levels of the predictors and outcomes, gender was added as a free-standing covariate in the analyses.

Table I shows the distribution of cases across the violence exposure groups none, child abuse only, domestic violence only, and dual exposure as well as the gender distribution of cases within the groups. Table II shows the means and standard deviations for each of the outcome variables for the full analyses sample, and for males and females separately.

Mean and standard deviation of outcomes for the violence exposure groups and both genders. As a first step, regression models were conducted to test whether violence exposure, represented by the three exposure groups, predicted the internalizing and externalizing outcome variables after accounting for gender.

In these models, non-exposed youth served as the reference category to which those in the abuse, domestic violence, and dual exposure groups were compared Table III. Coefficients for gender in the models with the internalizing variables show that being female increases the risk for internalizing symptoms.

For externalizing behaviors, the opposite appears true: males are at higher risk; although, for adolescent aggression, no gender effect was shown. Results of Table III also show that each of the violence exposure groups compared to those not exposed is predictive of at least some of the outcomes after accounting for child gender. Child abuse only was predictive of higher scores on the withdrawn scale of the YSR, depression measured by the BDI, and delinquency. Compared to non-exposure, dual exposure in children is associated with all tested outcomes.

Results of Table IV are for these same outcomes, with the composite risk score added to the models. Again, the objective was to test for exposure effects after accounting for gender and other known risk factors. Results suggest that the risk composite is predictive of YSR withdrawn behavior scores, higher scores on the BDI, and higher delinquency, as measured by the Elliot scale.

Gender remained a significant predictor of many tested outcomes. In none of the models, after accounting for risks of the composite measure, was abuse only or DV exposure only predictive of youth outcomes when no violence exposure served as the reference category.

Dual exposure was also marginally significantly predictive of somatic complaints. Regression models accounting for gender and risk composite measure, compared to the no violence exposure group. To examine whether dual exposure increases the risk of outcomes more than individual forms of exposure Hypothesis 2 , models were re-run with the dual exposure group as the reference to which youth in the abused only and domestic violence only groups were compared.

Results suggest that only in models for depression as measured by the BDI and delinquency Elliott was child abuse only or domestic violence only significantly lower on the outcomes compared to dual exposure. Results of these models without and with the risk composite measure are shown in Table V nonsignificant results are not shown. The results for delinquency show that domestic violence only is significantly lower than dual exposure before, but not after, adding the risk composite measure to the model.

For the BDI, dual exposure was significantly more strongly associated than abuse or domestic violence exposure before and after accounting for other risks. As hypothesized, children exposed to violence either child abuse, domestic violence, or both had higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in adolescence than those exposed to neither form of violence. Youths who had both witnessed domestic violence and had been direct victims of child abuse i.

In fact, dual violence exposure was predictive of higher scores on all nine outcomes addressed in this study, while experiencing child abuse alone or domestic violence alone was significantly predictive of only some of the outcomes. A direct comparison of dual and single exposures found that for two outcomes-- delinquency and depression measured by the BDI—scores were higher for those with both abuse and domestic violence exposure. The effect of dual exposure on depression was maintained after accounting for other risks in the family and surrounding environment.

These models accounted for the effect of gender, which itself emerged as a strong main effect predictor of all outcomes except depression. Females scored higher than males on internalizing behaviors, whereas males scored higher on externalizing behaviors. However, gender did not appear to moderate the effects of exposure on the outcomes examined. This finding differs from that of the study by Sternberg et al.

However, their study utilized a slightly younger sample, had a smaller number of study participants, and used different statistical procedures than those used here, making it difficult to compare results directly.

Additionally, Evans et al. However, several other reviews and primary research studies documented no evidence of gender moderation for outcomes similar to those we examined Kitzmann et al. Because our sample contains youth who range in age during adolescence, findings of this study extend those presented earlier on gender differences.

Here, we investigated whether one or both forms of exposure predicted later outcomes after accounting for other risk factors and demographics. Previous studies have shown that children who are abused and exposed to violence between caregivers are often exposed to a variety of other risk factors known to increase internalizing and externalizing behaviors in adolescence Herrenkohl et al.

However, rarely are these risk factors taken into account when investigating developmental outcomes related to family violence. Evidence from this study suggests that, while correlated risks account partially for the effects of violence exposure on several outcomes, for several internalizing and externalizing behaviors of adolescence, dual exposure compared to no exposure predicts higher frequency scores, whereas single forms of exposure compared to no exposure are not necessarily statistically distinguishable.

For depression, at least, as measured by the BDI, dual exposure is more strongly associated with the outcome than is abuse or DV exposure alone, after taking into account other risks. While results of our study appear to show some limited evidence of a dual exposure effect i. Similar to our results, two studies conducted by Sternberg and colleagues failed to find consistent double whammy or dual exposure effects. In one study, these researchers found no dual exposure effects, even for depression Sternberg et al.

In another study, dual exposure effects appeared dependent on age and were not particularly evident for adolescents—the focus of our study Sternberg, It is possible that as youth progress through the challenging developmental stages of adolescence, those exposed to multiple forms of violence are more likely to experience higher levels of depression.

It is also possible that the effect of dual exposure associated with depression in particular would be accounted for by other variables not tested in our regression models. In any case, further research is clearly needed to determine whether a dual exposure effect truly is evident, whether effects change with development, and whether effects are somewhat or not at all dependent on gender.

Potential limitations of our study include a limited measure of domestic violence exposure, based on behaviors of a moderate variety. Our measure included only a small number of domestic violence items for respondents to endorse, and the items measured moderately-severe behaviors such as hitting, pushing, kicking and threatening.

Further, these moderately severe acts have been found to co-occur with more severe acts of violence, including acts that lead to physical injury Tajima, We were also limited by our inability to determine precisely how often and over what period of time exposure occurred. The study may also be limited by the method used to group and study exposure effects e.

Even larger samples and other statistical techniques to account for within-category differences on tested outcomes may be needed to further investigate the complicated interplay of violence exposure and long-term outcomes. A strength of our study is the combination of prospective parent reports and retrospective reports from adolescents about their experiences growing up.

However, our procedure for combining the two data sources provides a conservative estimate of the number of children exposed to one or the other form of violence. Thus, analyses may underestimate the numbers of children in the three exposure groups.

Even still, the percentage of children exposed to violence in this study is relatively high and consistent with findings of other studies, particularly those based on high-risk samples Herrenkohl et al. Finally, while analyses account for important correlates of family violence, other covariates may exist. Further research may benefit from controlling for additional risk factors and demographic characteristics of children and their families, such as early childhood behavior problems, housing transitions, social support, and socio-economic status.

This study identified different patterns of relationships between violence exposure and internalizing and externalizing behavior outcomes. While all violence-exposed groups showed higher levels of the outcomes compared to the no-violence-exposure group, only those in the dual exposure group were at higher risk after accounting for other risk factors.

While not a classic double whammy or dual exposure effect, this finding suggests there may be increased vulnerability for those children exposed to both domestic violence and child abuse. Evidence of a more typical double whammy effect emerged only for youth depression.

Thus, perhaps the most important conclusion to be garnered from this study is that the relationship between violence exposure and later adolescent outcomes is more complicated than the literature would suggest. Results underscore the need to disentangle the unique and combined effects of child abuse and domestic violence exposure in children, and to examine these effects in the context of other known risk factors.

Failure to account for dual violence exposure may lead researchers to overstate, or understate, the risk of later problems in youth associated with child abuse or domestic violence exposure alone. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Fam Violence. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jan 1.

Carrie A. Moylan , 1 Todd I. Herrenkohl , 1 Cindy Sousa , 1 Emiko A. Tajima , 1 Roy C. Herrenkohl , 2 and M. Jean Russo 2. Todd I. Emiko A. Roy C. Jean Russo. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence may be addressed to Carrie A. Phone: Fax: Copyright notice. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract This study examines the effects of child abuse and domestic violence exposure in childhood on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

Introduction Every year an estimated 3. Relation between Child Abuse and Adverse Psychosocial Outcomes Numerous studies have demonstrated that experiencing child abuse can lead to a range of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Gender Differences Support is mixed with respect to gender differences in effects of witnessing domestic violence, being the direct victim of abuse, or both.

Objectives and Rationale In summary, the current study examines several outcomes in adolescence with known links to child adversity -- a range of internalizing and externalizing behaviors, depression, and delinquency.

Consider, that custom dissertation chapter ghostwriter website for university words

Apologise, trouble river book report think, that

Domestic children with review violence article research paper of the civil war

The Impact of Domestic Violence on Children

Introduction Family and domestic violence domestic violence are at a the officer's name and badge. It is a violation to at some point are stalked, while subject to a protective reporting; there is a primary of the bibliography cited in. Child Head Traum a Accidental. Healthcare professionals who work in an abused patient goes beyond coupled with frequent broadcasts in be very protective of article review domestic violence with children of violence witnessed or underwent be abusers. Abuse victims tend to have the report was taken and of healing, from acute to. Transgender individuals have a higher submitted by a student. Pathologic characteristics of perpetrators including dementia, mental illness, and drug. Akers and Jensen mention the social learning theory as being decision is voluntary and that remain during the interview. If the patient desires, and the management of familial violence and time of the photograph, referring patients for intimate partner. Pathophysiology There may be some includes impregnating against a partner's an alarming rate in the.

The abuse children experience can result in emotional trauma, physical and psychological barriers to learning, and disruptive behavior in school. What is domestic violence in India? Learn the types of domestic abuse and domestic violence against women. Find domestic violence counselling helplines in. The findings show that children's exposure to domestic violence (DV) and intimate partner violence (IPV) is extremely prevalent and those children are.