Title of dissertation or thesis Publication No. Database Name. Duis, J. Publication No. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. Note: An online dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia may be continuously updated and therefore not include a publication date like in the example below. Institution or organization name. Title of entry. In Title of reference work. In Merriam-Webster. Lastname ed.
Martin, M. McNeely Eds , Encyclopedia of big data. Note: If the dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia does not include an edition, simply skip that step. Title of dataset Version No. Grantmakers in the Arts. Give the name of the organization or individual followed by the date and the title. If there is no title, in brackets, you should provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears.
Include the URL and the retrieval date if there is no publication date. If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text not in the reference list and provide the month, day, and year in the text. If the interview transcript is published in an online periodical, like a magazine, cite the interview the same way you would cite the medium where it is published, as shown below:.
Schulman, M. Peter Dinklage is still punk rock. The New Yorker. If it is an audio file or transcript published in a database, credit the interviewee as the author and use the following model:. Paynter, W. Interview with Will Paynter [Interview]. When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title e. PowerPoint slides, Word document. Title of presentation [Lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, etc]. Smith, C. AI and machine learning demystified [PowerPoint slides].
Do not cite standard office software e. Word, Excel or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software. Title of software Version No. Maple companion Version 2. Cybernet Systems Co.
E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you should parenthetically cite them in your main text:. Title of post [Online forum post]. Stine, R. Ask me anything! Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Tweet]. Site Name. Note : If the tweet includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description.
Also attempt to replicate emojis if possible. National Geographic [ NatGeo]. Tweets [Twitter profile]. MLA Style [ mlastyle]. Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Note: If the Facebook post includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description.
Department of the Interior. Home [Facebook page]. Little River Canyon National Preserve n. BBC [ bbc]. Axelrod, A. A century later: The Treaty of Versailles and its rejection of racial equality. Code Switch, NPR. Last Name, F. Title of video [Video]. Streaming Service. Lushi, K. Albatross culture 1 [Video]. Note : The person or group who uploaded the video is considered the author.
Al-Mutawa, N. Superheroes inspired by Islam [Video]. Tedx Talks. Host, A. Title of episode No. In Name of podcast. Prime, K. For whom the cowbell tolls [Audio podcast episode]. In Radiolab. WNYC Studios. Group name. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23 4 , Krech Thomas, H. Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech Doctoral dissertation. University of Colorado, Boulder. Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known.
If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation for long titles just use the first few words. Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list.
For sources with no date use n. Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages. Role-play can help children learn techniques for coping with bullying Kraiser, Kraizer, S. Preventing bullying. All things Nittany. Establishing regular routines, such as exercise, can help survivors of disasters recover from trauma American Psychological Association [APA], n.
American Psychological Association. Recovering emotionally from disaster. In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks.
Below are examples of using in-text citation. Gass and Varonis found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic. For example:. This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect.
That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following guidelines to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text.
See pages of the manual. Note: When using multiple authors' names as part of your narrative, rather than in parentheses, always spell out the word and. Six or more authors: Norris-Shortle et al.
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Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here. Please note: the following contains a list of the most commonly cited periodical sources. For a complete list of how to cite periodical publications, please refer to the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual. APA style dictates that authors are named with their last name followed by their initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period.
The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized. If a DOI has been assigned to the article that you are using, you should include this after the page numbers for the article.
If no DOI has been assigned and you are accessing the periodical online, use the URL of the website from which you are retrieving the periodical. Author, A. Title of article. Title of Periodical , volume number issue number , pages.
Scruton, R. The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15 3 , 5 — The example above assumes no DOI is available. As noted above, when citing an article in an electronic journal, include a DOI if one is associated with the article. Baniya, S. Data and experience design: Negotiating community-oriented digital research with service-learning.
Harlow, H. Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55 , Scruton, R. The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15 3 , Note that citations for articles accessed electronically online follow the same basic format for article citations, but with a URL added to the citation. Henry, W. Making the grade in today's schools. Time, , Bernstein, M. Retrieved from. Schultz, S. Calls made to strengthen state energy policies.
The Country Today , pp. Wait till ice cream trucks get wind of this. The New York Times , p. Shoop, B. Weather effects on small businesses: why it pays to be small. The Chicago Tribune. Search this Guide Search. Author's Middle Initial.
Cleavage stage versus blastocyst stage embryo transfer in assisted conception. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , 4. Special issues. Haney, C. Capital punishment in the United States [Special issue]. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 10 4. Orazi, D. The nature and framing of gambling consequences in advertising.
Journal of Business Research, 68 10 , One author, Multiple works published in the same year. Reference list entry:. Kasabov, N. Evolving connectionist systems for adaptive learning and knowledge discovers: Trends and directions. Knowledge-Based Systems, 80 , 2— Integrative Computational Neurogenetic Modeling. Toga Ed. Academic Press. Find more in-text citation examples on the In-text Citation page. Wilson, S. Targets and taxes: Explaining the welfare orientations of the Australian public. McFeely, S.
Nursing Standard , 16 2 , 39— Author, A. Title of article. Title of Periodical. Brey, P. The strategic role of technology in a good society. Technology in Society. Reference format - online magazine or newspaper. Year, month day. Title of the magazine or newspaper , volume issue if used , pages. Read, E. Myth-busting gen Y. New Zealand Management , 54 10 , 63— Zendrian, A. CEO pay too high? The New York Times. Nuke test inquiry doubted.
The Dominion Post , p. Fleming, G. Shaking up the working world. The New Zealand Herald, p. Some business databases provide articles analysing a special industry or product. These articles often don't have authors. Use the publisher as the author, record the date of publication and name the database in the retrieval statement. Euromonitor International. Coffee in New Zealand. Retrieved from Passport database.
The new format includes https and the prefix doi. Oppenheimer, D. Improvement of writing skills during college: A multi-year cross-sectional and longitudinal study of undergraduate writing performance. Assessing Writing , 32, 12— Articles retrieved from library databases may include ezproxy. This ezproxy information should be removed.
You could do a Google search for the journal title within double quotation marks , e. Or, go to the Library database Ulrichsweb , search by the journal title or the journal's ISSN to find the journal record. On the journal record page, find the journal URL for your reference. This can happen to some discontinued journals, or journals archived in an archival database only. If you use electronic resources without DOI, such as an ebook or a data set or a journal without a website, from a library database, You are required to include the URL of the database homepage in your reference.
An ebook "Small town sustainability: economic, social,and environmental innovation". A reference list only lists the sources you have referred to in your writing. The purpose of the reference list is to allow your sources to be be found by your reader. It also gives credit to authors whose work and ideas you have considered.
All references cited in the text must appear in the reference list, except for personal communications such as conversations or emails which cannot be retrieved. A bibliography is different from a reference list as it lists all the sources used during your research and background reading, not just the ones you refer to in your writing. Alred, G. Best, A.
International history of the twentieth century. Easton, B. Does poverty affect health? Matheson Eds. Flesch, R. How to write plain English. Qualitative Health Research , 17 , — Radio New Zealand. Annual report New Zealand Management. Cancer Research , 70 16 , The Editors of the Lancet. Retraction—Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children.
The Lancet , , Hare, L. Effectiveness and efficiency in small academic peer groups: A case study Accession No. Small Group Research , 31 1 , 24— Ganster, D. The nomological validity of the Type A personality among employed adults [Monograph]. Journal of Applied Psychology , 76 1 , — Freeberg, T. From simple rules of individual proximity, complex and coordinated collective movement [Supplemental material].
Journal of Comparative Psychology , 2 , — Journal article references are covered in Section This guidance has been revised from the 6th edition. Journal Article References. This page contains reference examples for journal articles, including the following: Journal article Journal article with an article number Journal article with missing information Retracted journal article Retraction notice for a journal article Abstract of a journal article from an abstract indexing database Monograph as part of a journal issue Online-only supplemental material to a journal article.
Always include the issue number for a journal article. If the journal article does not have a DOI and is from an academic research database, end the reference after the page range for an explanation of why, see the database information page. The reference in this case is the same as for a print journal article. Do not include database information in the reference unless the journal article comes from a database that publishes works of limited circulation or original, proprietary content, such as UpToDate.
Journal article with an article number. Journal article with missing information. Missing volume number Stegmeir, M. Retracted journal article. Use this format to cite the retracted article itself, for example, to discuss the contents of the retracted article.
First provide publication details of the original article. Then provide information about the retraction in parentheses, including its year, journal, volume, issue, and page number s. Retraction notice for a journal article. Use this format to cite a retraction notice rather than a retracted article, for example, to provide information on why an article was retracted.