dissertation headings apa format

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Dissertation headings apa format

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Database Name. Archive Name. Various Examples Thesis, from a commercial database Lope, M. Dissertation, from an institutional database Andrea, H. See Ch. Unpublished Dissertations and Theses. Author, A. Toggle navigation Indiana University of Pennsylvania. A—Z Index Find People. Toggle navigation School of Graduate Studies and Research. Resources for Current Students. Thesis-Dissertation Information. Writing Your Thesis or Dissertation.

Research Tools. Formatting Aids and Instructional Videos. Writing Resources. Dot Leader Instructions. Page Breaks and Section Breaks. Sample Pages.

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Regardless, always begin with level one headings and proceed to level two, etc. Special headings called section labels are used for certain sections of a paper which always start on a new page. These labels should be positioned on their own line at the top of the page where the section starts, in bold and centered. APA also allows for seriation in the body text to help authors organize and present key ideas.

For lists where a specific order or numbered procedure is necessary, use an Arabic numeral directly followed by a period, such as:. Numbered lists should contain full sentences or paragraphs rather than phrases.

The first word after each number should be capitalized, as well as the first word in any following sentence; each sentence should end with a period or other punctuation. In general, participants found the user-centered OWL mock up to be easier to use. What follows are samples of participants' responses:. On the basis of research conducted by the usability team, OWL staff have completed a the OWL site map; b integrating graphics with text on the OWL homepage; c search boxes on all OWL pages except the orange OWL resources that is pending; we do have a search page ; d moving the navigation bar to the left side of pages on all OWL resources except in the orange area that is pending ; e piloting the first phase of the three-tiered navigation system, as illustrated in the new Engagement section.

If your bulleted list is part of the sentence and is not preceded by a colon, treat the bullets like a part of the sentence, adhering to standard capitalization and punctuation. This option is helpful for complex or longer bulleted sentences that may be more difficult to read without the aid of punctuation. For items in a bulleted list that are phrases rather than sentences, no punctuation is necessary.

Headings APA Style uses a unique headings system to separate and classify paper sections. Level 4 Teachers in Training. Level 4 Teaching Assistants. Add a search box to every page of the OWL. Develop an OWL site map. Develop a three-tiered navigation system. What follows are samples of participants' responses: "This version is easier to use.

On the basis of the research conducted by the usability team, OWL staff have completed the OWL site map; integrating graphics with text on the OWL homepage; search boxes on all OWL pages except the orange OWL resources that is pending; we do have a search page ; moving the navigation bar to the left side of pages on all OWL resources except in the orange area that is pending ; piloting the first phase of the three-tiered navigation system, as illustrated in the new Engagement section.

First, you need to understand the APA style rules. Studies have shown that using this familiar formatting style, your message stays clear and there is no confusion due to presentation. A thesis formatted to APA allows your reader to concentrate all their energy on the content. Second, you need to be proficient with Microsoft Word.

Proficient enough to know how to apply the various APA rules consistently to your document. This can be easy enough when setting up your pages and headings. However, when adding pagination, running headers, contents lists and references, things can start to get tricky.

But keep in mind each university often has its own styling overrides for the title page, front matter, margins, tables of contents and running headers. You need to keep these overrides in mind as well to ensure your thesis is compliant. On a tight timeline? Not an expert with Word? Get in touch and ask for a quote to have one our experts do all the formatting for you. Ensure every page in your document is US Letter size 8.

Most dissertations require a larger binding margin, this is not specified by APA but will often be part of specific University Guidelines. Other than the title page and copyright, all pages of the thesis should be numbered right the way through to any appendices at the back.

All text should have flush left justification so text has a ragged, unjustified right edge. The first line of all paragraphs should be indented by 0. The only exception is the first paragraph of the abstract. Pages should be balanced to avoid windows and orphans. This means no single line of text should appear alone at the top or bottom of a page.

The thesis should be double spaced throughout, even in block quotes, footnotes and references. No words should be hyphenated and there should be two spaces after end-of-sentence punctuation. Italics should never be used for emphasis. Lists or seriation should be separate sentences identified by an Arabic numeral followed by a period. The first word is capitalized, and the sentence ends with a period.

If bullets are used then these should be small squares or circles. Commas should separate each item in a series, even before the conjunction and , i. The header is located within, not below, the margin. There is no need to set the header at a specific distance from the top of the page. Typically the title and copyright pages are counted but not numbered. The remaining preliminary pages are then all paginated with lower case roman numerals.

It is very common for each University to have their own format for the title page and copyright pages so we would recommend checking these carefully and ideally finding examples from other thesis to compare to. If you include an abstract then the first paragraph is the only one that is not first line indented. The table of contents can be tricky to get right. Consistent levels of heading must be included although levels as low as 4 or 5 will typically be omitted.

Headings longer than one line must have a second line indent of 3 spaces, but not 5 spaces or this will appear as the next level of heading. Every level should use leader tabs and dots. The first page of the first chapter should not repeat the dissertation title. To improve readability, it is then acceptable to triple or quadruple spaces before major heading levels 1 and 2. All headings must then be formatted according to five possible formatting arrangements:. Heading 4: Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase, ending with a period.

Heading 5: Indented, italicized, lowercase, ending with a period. Table captions are italicized, single spaced and major words capitalized. Each must be labeled with a consecutive table number. The page number, table number and table title must then be included in a List of Tables at the front of the thesis.

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But keep in mind each university often has its own styling overrides for the title page, front matter, margins, tables of contents and running headers. You need to keep these overrides in mind as well to ensure your thesis is compliant. On a tight timeline? Not an expert with Word? Get in touch and ask for a quote to have one our experts do all the formatting for you.

Ensure every page in your document is US Letter size 8. Most dissertations require a larger binding margin, this is not specified by APA but will often be part of specific University Guidelines. Other than the title page and copyright, all pages of the thesis should be numbered right the way through to any appendices at the back.

All text should have flush left justification so text has a ragged, unjustified right edge. The first line of all paragraphs should be indented by 0. The only exception is the first paragraph of the abstract. Pages should be balanced to avoid windows and orphans. This means no single line of text should appear alone at the top or bottom of a page.

The thesis should be double spaced throughout, even in block quotes, footnotes and references. No words should be hyphenated and there should be two spaces after end-of-sentence punctuation. Italics should never be used for emphasis.

Lists or seriation should be separate sentences identified by an Arabic numeral followed by a period. The first word is capitalized, and the sentence ends with a period. If bullets are used then these should be small squares or circles. Commas should separate each item in a series, even before the conjunction and , i. The header is located within, not below, the margin.

There is no need to set the header at a specific distance from the top of the page. Typically the title and copyright pages are counted but not numbered. The remaining preliminary pages are then all paginated with lower case roman numerals. It is very common for each University to have their own format for the title page and copyright pages so we would recommend checking these carefully and ideally finding examples from other thesis to compare to.

If you include an abstract then the first paragraph is the only one that is not first line indented. The table of contents can be tricky to get right. Consistent levels of heading must be included although levels as low as 4 or 5 will typically be omitted. Headings longer than one line must have a second line indent of 3 spaces, but not 5 spaces or this will appear as the next level of heading.

Every level should use leader tabs and dots. The first page of the first chapter should not repeat the dissertation title. To improve readability, it is then acceptable to triple or quadruple spaces before major heading levels 1 and 2. All headings must then be formatted according to five possible formatting arrangements:.

Heading 4: Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase, ending with a period. Heading 5: Indented, italicized, lowercase, ending with a period. Table captions are italicized, single spaced and major words capitalized. Each must be labeled with a consecutive table number. The page number, table number and table title must then be included in a List of Tables at the front of the thesis. When styling a table keep in mind that every column must have a heading and it is typically acceptable to single space text or numbers within cells.

Wherever possible you should keep the whole of a table on one page. For tables continued onto the next page, use a line for lower border and place under the line a note in parentheses as follow table continues at bottom right. The column headings but not the table title must be repeated with continued table. Table notes should not be repeated but should appear at the end of the last page of table.

Table notes begin with a superscripted letter and are separated by periods. They are styled with in italics followed by two spaces and then the note itself which should not be italicized. Research Tools. Formatting Aids and Instructional Videos. Writing Resources. Dot Leader Instructions. Page Breaks and Section Breaks. Sample Pages. Writing Tips. Signature Page Templates. Checklist of Common Formatting Errors. Request Info Apply Now. APA Sixth Edition Subtitle Levels Distinguishing between numerous sections and sub-heading levels through differences in text format can help establish hierarchy and guide readers through a lengthy document.

Section titles must match exactly, word for word, between the Table of Contents and the body including punctuation and capitalization.

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And when you're working in APA Style , you don't just have citations, margins, and tables to worry about — you've got a whole system of headings and sub-headings that you need to pay attention to as well. But never fear — this guide will put the ins and outs of APA-Style headings at your fingertips. They're like road signs: they tell your reader where they are in your dissertation. These headings are hierarchical.

It means that the headings will indicate the importance of the sections, and whether the material that follows each heading constitutes part of a larger section. Levels three through five are where things get more interesting. Heading level 3 looks like this: APA style heading level three. It's indented, in boldface, and ends in a period; and words are not capitalized.

Here are heading levels four and five: APA style level four. APA style level five. Like level three, they're indented, end in a period, and words are not capitalized. Level four is in bold italic type, while level five is in italic type. Where Your Paragraph Should Start When you use heading level one or two in your dissertation, your paragraph should begin below the heading, indented and on a new line.

When you use level three, four, or five in your dissertation, you don't begin your paragraph on a new line. Instead, it starts right after the period that ends the heading. How To Choose Which Heading Level to Use The heading levels that you use will depend on how many sections your document or dissertation has. Figure and table numbering must be continuous throughout the dissertation or by chapter e.

Two figures or tables cannot be designated with the same number. If you have repeating images that you need to cite more than once, label them with their number and A, B, etc. Headings should be placed at the top of tables. While no specific rules for the format of table headings and figure captions are required, a consistent format must be used throughout the dissertation contact your department for style manuals appropriate to the field. Captions should appear at the bottom of any figures.

If the figure takes up the entire page, the caption should be placed alone on the preceding page, centered vertically and horizontally within the margins. Each page receives a separate page number. Each page must include a header. Landscape orientation figures and tables must be positioned correctly and bound at the top so that the top of the figure or table will be at the left margin.

Page numbers are always placed as if the figure were vertical on the page. If a graphic artist does the figures, GSAS will accept lettering done by the artist only within the figure. Figures done with software are acceptable if the figures are clear and legible. Legends and titles done by the same process as the figures will be accepted if they too are clear, legible, and run at least 10 or 12 characters per inch.

Otherwise, legends and captions should be printed with the same font used in the text. Original illustrations, photographs, and fine arts prints may be scanned and included, centered between the margins on a page with no text above or below. In addition to the student's own writing, dissertations often contain third-party content or in-copyright content owned by parties other than you, the student who authored the dissertation.

The Office for Scholarly Communication recommends consulting the information below about fair use, which allows individuals to use in-copyright content, on a limited basis and for specific purposes, without seeking permission from copyright holders. Because your dissertation will be made available for online distribution through DASH , Harvard's open-access repository, it is important that any third-party content in it may be made available in this way.

Fair use is a provision in copyright law that allows the use of a certain amount of copyrighted material without seeking permission. Fair use is format- and media-agnostic. This means fair use may apply to images including photographs, illustrations, and paintings , quoting at length from literature, videos, and music regardless of the format. How do I determine whether my use of an image or other third-party content in my dissertation is fair use?

Nonprofit, educational, scholarly, or research use favors fair use. Commercial, non-educational uses, often do not favor fair use. A transformative use repurposing or recontextualizing the in-copyright material favors fair use. Examining, analyzing, and explicating the material in a meaningful way, so as to enhance a reader's understanding, strengthens your fair use argument. In other words, can you make the point in the thesis without using, for instance, an in-copyright image?

Is that image necessary to your dissertation? If not, perhaps, for copyright reasons, you should not include the image. Published, fact-based content favors fair use and includes scholarly analysis in published academic venues. Creative works, including artistic images, are afforded more protection under copyright, and depending on your use in light of the other factors, may be less likely to favor fair use; however, this does not preclude considerations of fair use for creative content altogether.

Small, or less significant, amounts favor fair use. A good rule of thumb is to use only as much of the in-copyright content as necessary to serve your purpose. Can you use a thumbnail rather than a full-resolution image? Can you use a black-and-white photo instead of color?

Can you quote select passages instead of including several pages of the content? These simple changes bolster your fair use of the material. If there is a market for licensing this exact use or type of educational material, then this weighs against fair use. If however, there would likely be no effect on the potential commercial market, or if it is not possible to obtain permission to use the work, then this favors fair use.

Consider the following options if you find you cannot reasonably make a fair use claim for the content you wish to incorporate:. Use openly licensed content as an alternative to the original third-party content you intended to use. Openly-licensed content grants permission up-front for reuse of in-copyright content, provided your use meets the terms of the open license. Use content in the public domain, as this content is not in-copyright and is therefore free of all copyright restrictions.

Whereas third-party content is owned by parties other than you, no one owns content in the public domain; everyone, therefore, has the right to use it. Contact your Copyright First Responder. Please note, Copyright First Responders assist with questions concerning copyright and fair use, but do not assist with the process of obtaining permission from copyright holders.

Pages should be assigned a number except for the Dissertation Acceptance Certificate. Preliminary pages abstract, table of contents, list of tables, graphs, illustrations, and preface should use small Roman numerals i, ii, iii, iv, v, etc. All pages must contain text or images. Count the title page as page i and the copyright page as page ii, but do not print page numbers on either page. For the body of text, use Arabic numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc. Page numbers must be centered throughout the manuscript at the top or bottom.

It is customary not to have a page number on the page containing a chapter heading. This page should not be counted or numbered. The DAC will appear in the online version of the published dissertation. The dissertation begins with the title page; the title should be as concise as possible and should provide an accurate description of the dissertation. Alternatively, students may choose to license their work openly under a Creative Commons license.

The author remains the copyright holder while at the same time granting up-front permission to others to read, share, and depending on the license adapt the work, so long as proper attribution is given. By default, under copyright law, the author reserves all rights; under a Creative Commons license, the author reserves some rights.

An abstract, numbered as page iii , should immediately follow the copyright page and should state the problem, describe the methods and procedures used, and give the main results or conclusions of the research. The abstract will appear in the online and bound versions of the dissertation and will be published by ProQuest.

There is no maximum word count for the abstract. Dissertations divided into sections must contain a table of contents that lists, at minimum, the major headings in the following order:. Supplemental figures and tables must be placed at the end of the dissertation in an appendix, not within or at the end of a chapter.

If additional digital information including audio, video, image, or datasets will accompany the main body of the dissertation, it should be uploaded as a supplemental file through ProQuest ETD. As a matter of copyright, dissertations comprising the student's previously published works must be authorized for distribution from DASH.

The guidelines in this section pertain to any previously published material that requires permission from publishers or other rightsholders before it may be distributed from DASH.

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In APA Style, the Introduction ends in a period; and in order, beginning with level. Headings are covered in Dissertation headings apa format. It's indented, in boldface, and end in a period, and. Level four is in bold levels, always use the headings words are not capitalized. Text begins on the same line and continues as a regular paragraph. Headings are used to help related to headings:. Here are heading levels four are capitalized. Section headings receive level one. Regardless of the number of section never gets a heading words are not capitalized. Like level three, they're indented, this: APA style heading level.

Distinguishing between numerous sections and sub-heading levels through differences in text format can help establish hierarchy and guide readers through a. Formatting Thesis or Dissertation. • Title Page, Table of Contents, etc. • APA 6th edition. • MLA 8th edition. • IUP Thesis-Dissertation Website. The caption label and text should be on the same line as each other. The page number, table number and table title must then be included in a.