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An achievement test was used to collect the information from respondents. Independent sample t-test was also applied as test of significance. It was concluded that continuous assessment had positive effects on students' achievement in discovery learning. It was recommended that teachers who are well versed in evaluation and assessment techniques should be encouraged and their expertise utilized to enhance students' performance at the SSSI level. In addition, training should be given to the instructors.

This study examines the link between math anxiety and math performance in a group of Colombian students. A total of students between 8 and 16 years of age took part in this study. Analyses by gender and grade were conducted, while Analyses by gender and grade were conducted, while controlling for other types of anxiety i.

In line with that reported in other countries, a negative correlation was found between performance in mathematics and math anxiety. Importantly, this trend was stronger in girls than in boys. Given the limited number of studies exploring the relationship between math anxiety and math performance in Latin America and, particularly, in Colombia, this study fills an important gap in the literature.

The results are particularly relevant in view of the poor performance of Colombian students in mathematics, revealed by the most recent pisa reports. We investigated the mediating effects of anxiety and mind wandering in the relationship between stereotype threat and academic performance, testing our multiple mediation model with 5, bootstrap samples. The participants were 76 female The participants were 76 female undergraduate students at South China Normal University. Results showed that both anxiety and mind wandering.

Aitao Lu. Findings of the study showed that teachers handling College Algebra, Number Theory, and Spherical Trigonometry subjects have outstanding teacher attributes. In terms of attitude towards mathematics, students possess positive attitude towards all mathematics subjects covered in the study. In terms of mathematics performance, students have satisfactory performance in all mathematics subjects except in Advanced Algebra with a fair performance. Lastly, self confidence with mathematics was a significant determinant of performances in Differential Calculus and Number Theory.

The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of language of encouragement on mathematics anxiety, self-efficacy, and mathematics performance of college students. The study utilized the Pre-test Post-test Comparison Group The effect of language of encouragement and praise on mathematics anxiety, self-efficacy, and mathematics performance was determined by comparing the students' pre-test and post-test scores.

The results revealed that techniques have adaptive effects on mathematics anxiety, self-efficacy, and mathematics performance of students. To support the claim that encouragement is better than praise, the mean differences of the post-tests of two groups were obtained using t-test for independent samples. The results showed significant results in all outcome variables which reveals that encouragement can reduce mathematics anxiety, increase self-efficacy, and improve mathematics performance of students much better than praise.

Mathematics anxiety and self-efficacy has a significant moderately low negative correlation, mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance has no significant correlation, and self-efficacy and mathematics performance has a significant moderately low positive correlation. Thus, mathematics performance of students can be better determined based on the level of their self-efficacy than on their level of mathematics anxiety. The present study aims at exploring predictors influencing mathematics performance.

In particular, the study focuses on internal students' characteristics gender, age, metacognitive experience, mathematics self-efficacy and external In particular, the study focuses on internal students' characteristics gender, age, metacognitive experience, mathematics self-efficacy and external contextual factors GDP of school location, parents' educational level, teachers' educational level, and teacher beliefs. A sample of students and 91 teachers from Chinese primary schools were involved in the study.

Path analysis was used to test the direct and indirect relations between the predictors and mathematics performance. Results reveal that a large proportion of mathematics performance can be directly predicted from students' metacognitive experiences. In addition, other student characteristics and contextual variables influence mathematics performance in direct or indirect ways.

Mathematics teachers' quality continues as an enduring concern until now. This study attempts to address this concern by considering private and public schools. It measured the quality of Mathematics teachers using three indicators It measured the quality of Mathematics teachers using three indicators: teaching methods, teaching competencies, and students' Mathematics performance. Their teaching competencies were high in all domains. These imply that the teachers of both schools possess the skill to teach with quality.

Their levels of teaching competencies were also comparable. This could be due to other moderating variables on the side of the NNVS students that affected their performance. The findings suggest teachers should continually improve their teaching methods, more preferably focusing on all learning domains. They should provide rooms for their own holistic development as Mathematics teachers. A deeper scrutiny of this issue would be interesting with larger samples and extensive analyses.

Annemie Desoete. Jean Verhaeghe. Chang Zhu. Background: The results of the Programme for International Student Assessment PISA showed that Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand underperformed and were positioned in the bottom third out of 65 participating countries for Background: The results of the Programme for International Student Assessment PISA showed that Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand underperformed and were positioned in the bottom third out of 65 participating countries for mathematics, science, and reading literacies.

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among affective characteristics-related variables at the student level, the aggregated school-level variables, and mathematics performance by using the Programme for International Student Assessment PISA dataset.

The student samples from Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand were 5, , 5, and 6, , respectively. The data were an Prediction of mathematics work ethic and performance from behavioral, normative, and control beliefs Q4 among Qatari adolescents. Yet often, researchers and policy makers across the globe tend to focus their attention primarily on the academic trajectories of adolescents hailing from highly successful education systems. Hence, a vast The present study, therefore, explored the relations of dispositions toward mathematics, subjective norms in mathematics, and perceived control of success in mathematics to mathematics work ethic as well as mathematics performance; and the mediational role of mathematics work ethic in the association between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs and mathematics performance among adolescents in one of the lowest performing education systems, Qatar.

Structural equation modeling SEM analyses revealed that Qatari adolescents' dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics were significantly associated with their mathematics work ethic and mathematics performance, and mathematics work ethic significantly mediated the relationship between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics and mathematics performance.

However, multi-group SEM analyses indicated that these relationships were not invariant across the gender and the SES groups. Motivation is closely related with expectancy belief regarding the task and value attached to the task. Identification of which Identification of which one or ones of the factors constituting motivation is more closely related to mathematics performance may help more effective mathematics planning process.

The study was conducted on middle school students receiving their education in Konya provincial center. The data obtained were analyzed using the structural equation modeling. According to the results that were obtained, it was understood that expectancy beliefs, task difficulty and intrinsic interest value were the most effective variables on mathematics performance.

Moreover, findings of this study show that students with high expectancy perceptions in mathematics who derived pleasure from dealing with mathematics and had less difficulty in mathematics had higher mathematics achievements. The findings that were obtained were discussed in light of theoretical explanations. Sample consisted of and year-old Malaysian and Singaporean students. Data were analysed using hierarchical linear modelling approach with HLM 7.

Results showed that the Index of economic, social, and cultural status ESCS , mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematics anxiety have significant effects on mathematics performance in Malaysia and Singapore at the student level. Proportion of boys at the school level has no significant effects on mathematics performance for both Malaysian and Singaporean students.

ESCS mean at the school level has positive and significant effects on mathematics performance in Malaysia, but not in Singapore. Limitations, implications, and future studies were discussed. Mei Yean Ong. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and a hierarchical linear modeling HLM approach with the HLM version 7.

Results: Different patterns of relationships were found between student- and school-level variables and mathematics performance in the three countries. The common student-level variable is attitudes towards learning outcomes, which predicted an increase in scores for the Indonesian, Malaysian, and Thai models.

At the student level, the strongest predictor on mathematics literacy performance was mathematics self-efficacy for both Indonesian and Malaysian models, and perseverance for the Thai Model. At the school level, school average mathematics self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of mathematics performance in the Indonesian model; average openness to problem-solving in the Thai model; and school average instrumental motivation, mathematics behaviour, and attitudes towards learning outcomes predicted a decrease in scores for the Malaysian model.

Conclusion: The inconclusive results of the multilevel analysis has demonstrated some interesting points for discussion, though the results could be attributed to the differences in education system and a diversity of cultural context in each individual country. Implications of the findings and limitations are discussed. Related Topics. University Entrance Exam. Follow Following. Learning Styles. Domination in graphs. Future teachers may require more teaching strategies in such a self-directed learning environment.

For example, the system can keep track of all the learning activities. Because the gamified knowledge map provides students with multiple virtual roads to learn in the system, every student may take different routes. For instance, some students may be more interested in geometry, while others may be confident in exploring the rules of arithmetic. In this study, we noticed that the low-achieving students needed more time to work on basic tasks, while high-achieving students easily passed those tasks and moved on to the next ones.

As a result, some of the high-achieving students had already started to learn the materials for the next grade level. This was possibly because high-achieving students were able to respond well to challenging assignments Singh Therefore, we should provide high-achieving students with more complex tasks to maintain their interest.

For example, Math-Island should provide some authentic mathematical problems as advanced exercises. In this study, we demonstrated a long-term example of incorporating a gamified knowledge map in an elementary mathematical curriculum. In the Math-Island game, the curriculum is visualized as a knowledge map instead of a linear sequence, as in textbooks. By doing so, students are enabled to explore relationships in the mathematics curriculum represented by the knowledge map; that is, the structure of the different roads on Math-Island.

Furthermore, before learning, students may preview what will be learned, and after learning, students may also reflect on how well they learned. Unlike traditional lectures or textbooks, in which students could only follow a predefined order to learn knowledge without thinking why they have to learn it, the knowledge map allows students to understand the structure of knowledge and plan how to achieve advanced knowledge.

Although the order of knowledge still remains the same, students take primary control of their learning. In a sense, the knowledge map may liberate elementary students from passive learning. The reason may be that students likely developed interests in using Math-Island to learn mathematics actively, regardless of whether they are high- and low-achieving students.

Regardless of the construction mechanism, Math-Island allows students to plan and manage their cities by constructing and upgrading buildings. Furthermore, students may manage their knowledge by planning and constructing of buildings on their virtual islands.

Like most construction management games, students set goals and make decisions so that they may accumulate their assets. These assets are not only external rewards but also visible achievements, which may bring a sense of ownership and confidence. In other words, the system gamified the process of self-directed learning. As for the sightseeing mechanism, in conventional instruction, elementary students usually lack the self-control to learn knowledge actively Duckworth et al.

On the other hand, although previous researchers have already proposed various self-regulated learning strategies such as Taub et al. For these reasons, this study uses the sightseeing mechanism to engage elementary students in a social stage to show other students how well their Math-Islands have been built. For example, in Math-Island, although the students think that they construct buildings in their islands, they plan the development of their knowledge maps.

After learning, they may also reflect on their progress by observing the appearance of the buildings. In brief, owing to the construction mechanism, the students are allowed to choose a place and build their unique islands by learning concepts.

During the process, students have to do the learning task, get feedback, and get rewards, which are the three major functions of the construction functions. This study reported the results of a 2-year experiment with the Math-Island system, in which a knowledge map with extensive mathematics content was provided to support the complete elementary mathematics curriculum. Each road in Math-Island represents a mathematical topic, such as addition. There are many buildings on each road, with each building representing a unit of the mathematics curriculum.

Students may learn about the concept and practice it in each building while being provided with feedback by the system. In particular, the low-achieving students outperformed those of the norm in terms of word problem-solving. For enhancing interest, we found that both the low-achieving and the high-achieving students in the experimental school, when using the Math-Island system, maintained a rather high level of interest in learning mathematics and using the system. The results of this study indicated some possibility that elementary students could be able to learn mathematics in a self-directed learning fashion Nilson ; Chen et al.

This possibility is worthy of future exploration. For example, by analyzing student data, we can investigate how to support students in conducting self-directed learning. Additionally, because we have already collected a considerable amount of student data, we are currently employing machine learning techniques to improve feedback to the students. Finally, to provide students appropriate challenges, the diversity, quantity, and difficulty of content may need to be increased in the Math-Island system.

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McLaren, B. A computer-based game that promotes mathematics learning more than a conventional approach. International Journal of Game-Based Learning, 7 1 , 36— Ministry of Education. Guidelines of grades curriculum of elementary and junior high school education. Mullis, I. PIRLS international results in reading. Nilson, L. The secret of self-regulated learning.

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Yang, E. Variation based discovery learning design in 1 to 1 mathematics classroom. Biswas, L. Wong, T. Chen Eds. Download references. As a series of subsequent research papers are still in progress, for now, it is temporarily impossible to share research data sets. National Central University, No. National Taiwan Normal University, No. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. CYCY contributed to the study design, data acquisition and analysis, mainly drafted the manuscript and execution project.

HNHC was involved in data acquisition, revision of the manuscript and data analysis. ZHC was contributed to the study idea and drafted the manuscript. CCYL of this research was involved in data acquisition and revision of the manuscript. TWC was project manager and revision of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Charles Y.

Charles Y. The research interests include one-to-one learning environments and game-based learning. Hercy N. His research interests include one-to-one learning environments and game-based learning. His research interests focus on learning technology and interactive stories, technology intensive language learning and game-based learning.

Calvin C. His research focuses on computer-based language learning for primary schools. He has worked on various areas of digital technology supported learning, including artificial intelligence in education, computer supported collaborative learning, digital classrooms, online learning communities, mobile and ubiquitous learning, digital game based learning, and, most recently, technology supported mathematics and language arts learning.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Reprints and Permissions. Yeh, C. Enhancing achievement and interest in mathematics learning through Math-Island. RPTEL 14, 5 Download citation. Received : 29 October Accepted : 22 February Published : 11 March Skip to main content. Search all SpringerOpen articles Search. Download PDF. Abstract Conventional teacher-led instruction remains dominant in most elementary mathematics classrooms in Taiwan.

Introduction Mathematics has been regarded as a fundamental subject because arithmetic and logical reasoning are the basis of science and technology. Related works Computer-supported mathematics learning The mathematics curriculum in elementary schools basically includes conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and strategic competence in terms of mathematical proficiency see Kilpatrick et al.

Digital educational games for mathematics learning Because mathematics is an abstract subject, elementary students easily lose interest in it, especially low-achieving students. System architecture The Math-Island game is a Web application, supporting cross-device interactions among students, teachers, and the mathematics content structure. The system architecture of Math-Island. Full size image. The knowledge map. Two game mechanisms for Math-Island. Screenshots of construction and sightseeing mechanisms in Math-Island.

Method This paper reported a 2-year study in which the Math-Island system was adopted in an elementary school. Procedure Before the first semester, a 3-week training workshop was conducted to familiarize the students with the basic operation of tablets and the Math-Island system. Table 1 The experimental procedure from June to June Full size table. Table 2 The results of the pretest the second graders Full size table. Table 3 The results of the posttest the fourth graders Full size table.

Table 4 The posttest results of the low-achieving students the second graders Full size table. Table 5 The result of the interest questionnaire Full size table. Discussion on some features of this study In addition to the enhancement of achievement and interest, we noticed that there are some features in this study and our design worth some discussion. The advantages of building a long-term study Owing to the limitations of deployment time and sample sizes, it is hard for most researchers to conduct a longitudinal study.

Obtaining substantial evidence from the game-based learning environment The research environment was a natural setting, which could not be entirely controlled and manipulated like most experiments in laboratories. Visualizing the learning portfolio In this study, we demonstrated a long-term example of incorporating a gamified knowledge map in an elementary mathematical curriculum.

Gaining a sense of achievement and ownership through the construction mechanism Regardless of the construction mechanism, Math-Island allows students to plan and manage their cities by constructing and upgrading buildings. Demonstrating learning result to peers through the sightseeing mechanism As for the sightseeing mechanism, in conventional instruction, elementary students usually lack the self-control to learn knowledge actively Duckworth et al.

Conclusion and future work This study reported the results of a 2-year experiment with the Math-Island system, in which a knowledge map with extensive mathematics content was provided to support the complete elementary mathematics curriculum. References Al-Zoubi, S. Google Scholar Arter, J. Google Scholar Azevedo, R. Google Scholar Barr, R. Google Scholar Birgin, O. Google Scholar Chan, T. Google Scholar Chase, K. Google Scholar Chen, Y. Google Scholar Chen, Z.

Google Scholar Cheng, H. Google Scholar Chu, H. Google Scholar Davenport, T. Google Scholar Ebener, S. Google Scholar Hanus, M. Google Scholar Hwang, G. Google Scholar Kiili, K. Google Scholar Kilpatrick, J. Google Scholar Koivisto, J.

In addition, training should be given to the instructors. This study examines the link between math anxiety and math performance in a group of Colombian students. A total of students between 8 and 16 years of age took part in this study.

Analyses by gender and grade were conducted, while Analyses by gender and grade were conducted, while controlling for other types of anxiety i. In line with that reported in other countries, a negative correlation was found between performance in mathematics and math anxiety. Importantly, this trend was stronger in girls than in boys. Given the limited number of studies exploring the relationship between math anxiety and math performance in Latin America and, particularly, in Colombia, this study fills an important gap in the literature.

The results are particularly relevant in view of the poor performance of Colombian students in mathematics, revealed by the most recent pisa reports. We investigated the mediating effects of anxiety and mind wandering in the relationship between stereotype threat and academic performance, testing our multiple mediation model with 5, bootstrap samples. The participants were 76 female The participants were 76 female undergraduate students at South China Normal University.

Results showed that both anxiety and mind wandering. Aitao Lu. Findings of the study showed that teachers handling College Algebra, Number Theory, and Spherical Trigonometry subjects have outstanding teacher attributes.

In terms of attitude towards mathematics, students possess positive attitude towards all mathematics subjects covered in the study. In terms of mathematics performance, students have satisfactory performance in all mathematics subjects except in Advanced Algebra with a fair performance. Lastly, self confidence with mathematics was a significant determinant of performances in Differential Calculus and Number Theory.

The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of language of encouragement on mathematics anxiety, self-efficacy, and mathematics performance of college students. The study utilized the Pre-test Post-test Comparison Group The effect of language of encouragement and praise on mathematics anxiety, self-efficacy, and mathematics performance was determined by comparing the students' pre-test and post-test scores. The results revealed that techniques have adaptive effects on mathematics anxiety, self-efficacy, and mathematics performance of students.

To support the claim that encouragement is better than praise, the mean differences of the post-tests of two groups were obtained using t-test for independent samples. The results showed significant results in all outcome variables which reveals that encouragement can reduce mathematics anxiety, increase self-efficacy, and improve mathematics performance of students much better than praise.

Mathematics anxiety and self-efficacy has a significant moderately low negative correlation, mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance has no significant correlation, and self-efficacy and mathematics performance has a significant moderately low positive correlation.

Thus, mathematics performance of students can be better determined based on the level of their self-efficacy than on their level of mathematics anxiety. The present study aims at exploring predictors influencing mathematics performance. In particular, the study focuses on internal students' characteristics gender, age, metacognitive experience, mathematics self-efficacy and external In particular, the study focuses on internal students' characteristics gender, age, metacognitive experience, mathematics self-efficacy and external contextual factors GDP of school location, parents' educational level, teachers' educational level, and teacher beliefs.

A sample of students and 91 teachers from Chinese primary schools were involved in the study. Path analysis was used to test the direct and indirect relations between the predictors and mathematics performance. Results reveal that a large proportion of mathematics performance can be directly predicted from students' metacognitive experiences.

In addition, other student characteristics and contextual variables influence mathematics performance in direct or indirect ways. Mathematics teachers' quality continues as an enduring concern until now. This study attempts to address this concern by considering private and public schools. It measured the quality of Mathematics teachers using three indicators It measured the quality of Mathematics teachers using three indicators: teaching methods, teaching competencies, and students' Mathematics performance.

Their teaching competencies were high in all domains. These imply that the teachers of both schools possess the skill to teach with quality. Their levels of teaching competencies were also comparable. This could be due to other moderating variables on the side of the NNVS students that affected their performance. The findings suggest teachers should continually improve their teaching methods, more preferably focusing on all learning domains.

They should provide rooms for their own holistic development as Mathematics teachers. A deeper scrutiny of this issue would be interesting with larger samples and extensive analyses. Annemie Desoete. Jean Verhaeghe. Chang Zhu. Background: The results of the Programme for International Student Assessment PISA showed that Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand underperformed and were positioned in the bottom third out of 65 participating countries for Background: The results of the Programme for International Student Assessment PISA showed that Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand underperformed and were positioned in the bottom third out of 65 participating countries for mathematics, science, and reading literacies.

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among affective characteristics-related variables at the student level, the aggregated school-level variables, and mathematics performance by using the Programme for International Student Assessment PISA dataset.

The student samples from Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand were 5, , 5, and 6, , respectively. The data were an Prediction of mathematics work ethic and performance from behavioral, normative, and control beliefs Q4 among Qatari adolescents. Yet often, researchers and policy makers across the globe tend to focus their attention primarily on the academic trajectories of adolescents hailing from highly successful education systems. Hence, a vast The present study, therefore, explored the relations of dispositions toward mathematics, subjective norms in mathematics, and perceived control of success in mathematics to mathematics work ethic as well as mathematics performance; and the mediational role of mathematics work ethic in the association between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs and mathematics performance among adolescents in one of the lowest performing education systems, Qatar.

Structural equation modeling SEM analyses revealed that Qatari adolescents' dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics were significantly associated with their mathematics work ethic and mathematics performance, and mathematics work ethic significantly mediated the relationship between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics and mathematics performance.

However, multi-group SEM analyses indicated that these relationships were not invariant across the gender and the SES groups. Motivation is closely related with expectancy belief regarding the task and value attached to the task. Identification of which Identification of which one or ones of the factors constituting motivation is more closely related to mathematics performance may help more effective mathematics planning process.

The study was conducted on middle school students receiving their education in Konya provincial center. The data obtained were analyzed using the structural equation modeling. According to the results that were obtained, it was understood that expectancy beliefs, task difficulty and intrinsic interest value were the most effective variables on mathematics performance. Moreover, findings of this study show that students with high expectancy perceptions in mathematics who derived pleasure from dealing with mathematics and had less difficulty in mathematics had higher mathematics achievements.

The findings that were obtained were discussed in light of theoretical explanations. Sample consisted of and year-old Malaysian and Singaporean students. Data were analysed using hierarchical linear modelling approach with HLM 7. Results showed that the Index of economic, social, and cultural status ESCS , mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematics anxiety have significant effects on mathematics performance in Malaysia and Singapore at the student level.

Proportion of boys at the school level has no significant effects on mathematics performance for both Malaysian and Singaporean students. ESCS mean at the school level has positive and significant effects on mathematics performance in Malaysia, but not in Singapore.

Limitations, implications, and future studies were discussed. Mei Yean Ong. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and a hierarchical linear modeling HLM approach with the HLM version 7. Results: Different patterns of relationships were found between student- and school-level variables and mathematics performance in the three countries. The common student-level variable is attitudes towards learning outcomes, which predicted an increase in scores for the Indonesian, Malaysian, and Thai models.

At the student level, the strongest predictor on mathematics literacy performance was mathematics self-efficacy for both Indonesian and Malaysian models, and perseverance for the Thai Model. At the school level, school average mathematics self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of mathematics performance in the Indonesian model; average openness to problem-solving in the Thai model; and school average instrumental motivation, mathematics behaviour, and attitudes towards learning outcomes predicted a decrease in scores for the Malaysian model.

Conclusion: The inconclusive results of the multilevel analysis has demonstrated some interesting points for discussion, though the results could be attributed to the differences in education system and a diversity of cultural context in each individual country. Implications of the findings and limitations are discussed. Related Topics. University Entrance Exam. Follow Following. Learning Styles. Domination in graphs. K12 Deped. Online Learning.

Graph Theory and Fuzzy GraphTheort. K Education. The students in the control school received only conventional mathematics instruction without using the Math-Island system during the 2-year period. Before the first semester, a 3-week training workshop was conducted to familiarize the students with the basic operation of tablets and the Math-Island system. By doing so, it was ensured that all participants had similar prerequisite skills. The procedure of this study was illustrated in Table 1.

From June to June , while the students in the control school learned mathematics in a conventional way, the students in the experimental school learned mathematics not only in mathematics classes but also through the Math-Island system. Although the teachers in the experimental school mainly adopted lectures in mathematics classes, they used the Math-Island system as learning materials at school and for homework.

At the same time, they allowed the students to explore the knowledge map at their own pace. During the 2 years, every student completed Given that there were tasks for the second and third graders, the students could finish The data also showed that the average correctness rate of the students was As a pretest, the assessment of the second graders consisted of 50 items, including conceptual understanding 23 items , calculating 18 items , and word problem-solving 9 items.

As a posttest, the assessment of the third graders consisted of 60 items, including conceptual understanding 18 items , calculating 27 items , and word problem-solving 15 items. The scores of the test ranged from 0 to 50 points. Because some students were absent during the test, this study obtained valid tests from the experimental school and tests from the control school. This part included two dimensions: attraction 8 items and satisfaction 5 items.

Due to the absences of several students on the day the questionnaire was administered, there were only valid questionnaires in this study. This part of the study adopted semistructured interviews of eight teachers, which comprised the following three main questions: a Do you have any notable stories about students using the Math-Island system?

The interview was recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded and categorized according to the five dimensions of the questionnaire i. In addition, the tests were also carried out to compare achievements with the norm Lin et al. For the second research question, several z tests were used to examine how the interests of the low-achieving students were distributed compared with the whole sample.

To examine the homogeneity of the students in both schools in the first year, the MANOVA of the pretest was conducted. In other words, the students of both schools had similar mathematics abilities at the time of the first mathematics achievement assessment and could be fairly compared.

At the end of the fourth grade, the students of both schools received the posttest, the results of which were examined by a MANOVA. The results suggested that the students who used Math-Island for 2 years had better mathematics abilities than those who did not. The analysis further revealed that the univariate effects on calculating and word problem-solving were significant, but the effect on conceptual understanding was insignificant.

The results indicated that the students in the experimental school outperformed their counterparts in terms of the procedure and application of arithmetic. The reason may be that the system provided students with more opportunities to do calculation exercises and word problems, and the students were more willing to do these exercises in a game-based environment.

Furthermore, they were engaged in solving various exercises with the support of immediate feedback until they passed the requirements of every building in their Math-Island. However, the students learned mathematical concepts mainly by watching videos in the system, which provided only demonstrations like lectures in conventional classrooms. Furthermore, to examine the differences between the low-achieving students in both schools, another MANOVA was also conducted on the pretest and the posttest.

The analysis further revealed that only the univariate effect on word problem-solving was significant. The results suggested that the low-achieving students who used Math-Island for 2 years had better word problem-solving ability than those students in the control school, but the effect on conceptual understanding and procedural fluency was insignificant. Because the mathematics achievement assessment was a standardized achievement assessment Lin et al.

In the pretest, the average score of the control school was the percentile rank of a score PR 55, but their average score surprisingly decreased to PR 34 in the posttest. The results confirmed the fact that conventional mathematics teaching in Taiwan might result in an M-shape distribution, suggesting that low-achieving students required additional learning resources.

Conversely, the average score of the experimental school was PR 48 in the pretest, and their score slightly decreased to PR 44 in the posttest. Overall, both PR values were decreasing, because the mathematics curriculum became more and more difficult from the second grade to the fourth grade. However, it should be noted that the experimental school has been less affected, resulting in a significant difference compared with the control school see Table 5.

The results were consistent with the univariate effect of the MANOVA on word problem-solving, suggesting that the Math-Island system could help students learn to complete word problems better. This may be because the learning tasks in Math-Island provided students with adequate explanations for various types of word problems and provided feedback for exercises.

To examine whether the low-achieving students had low levels of interest in mathematics and the Math-Island system, the study adopted z tests on the data of the interest questionnaire. Table 5 shows the descriptive statistics and the results of the z tests. Regarding the interest in mathematics, the analysis showed that the interest of the low-achieving students was similar to that of the whole sample in terms of attitude, initiative, and confidence.

The results were different from previous studies asserting that low-achieving students tended to have lower levels of interest in mathematics Al-Zoubi and Younes The reason was perhaps that the low-achieving students were comparably motivated to learn mathematics in the Math-Island system. Thanks to this, they would not feel high-pressure when moving on to current lessons.

Furthermore, by learning individually after class, they could effectively prepare themselves for future learning. The results suggested that the system could serve as a scaffolding on conventional instruction for low-achieving students. The students could benefit from such a blended learning environment and, thus, build confidence in mathematics by learning at their own paces. The low-achieving students as a whole were also attracted to the system and felt satisfaction from it.

However, when he was alone, he would go on to Math-Island, concentrating on the tasks quietly. He gradually came to enjoy learning mathematics. It seemed that Math-Island was more attractive to them than a lecture by a teacher. I believed that students could be encouraged, thus improve their ability and learn happily. Conversely, they enjoyed the contentment when completing a task, as if they were going aboard to join a competition.

Furthermore, continuously overcoming the tasks might bring students a sense of achievement and satisfaction. In addition to the enhancement of achievement and interest, we noticed that there are some features in this study and our design worth some discussion. Owing to the limitations of deployment time and sample sizes, it is hard for most researchers to conduct a longitudinal study.

Fortunately, we had a chance to maintain a long-term collaboration with an experimental school for more than 2 years. From this experiment, we notice that there are two advantages to conducting a long-term study. The research environment was a natural setting, which could not be entirely controlled and manipulated like most experiments in laboratories. However, this study could provide long-term evidence to investigate how students learned in a game-based learning environment with their tablets.

It should be noted that we did not aim to replace teachers in classrooms with the Math-Island game. Instead, we attempted to establish an ordinary learning scenario, in which the teachers and students regarded the game as one of the learning resources. For example, teachers may help low-achieving students to improve their understanding of a specific concept in the Math-Island system.

For example, teachers may encounter difficulties in dealing with the progress of both high- and low-achieving students. How do they take care of all students with different abilities at the same time? Future teachers may require more teaching strategies in such a self-directed learning environment. For example, the system can keep track of all the learning activities.

Because the gamified knowledge map provides students with multiple virtual roads to learn in the system, every student may take different routes. For instance, some students may be more interested in geometry, while others may be confident in exploring the rules of arithmetic.

In this study, we noticed that the low-achieving students needed more time to work on basic tasks, while high-achieving students easily passed those tasks and moved on to the next ones. As a result, some of the high-achieving students had already started to learn the materials for the next grade level.

This was possibly because high-achieving students were able to respond well to challenging assignments Singh Therefore, we should provide high-achieving students with more complex tasks to maintain their interest. For example, Math-Island should provide some authentic mathematical problems as advanced exercises.

In this study, we demonstrated a long-term example of incorporating a gamified knowledge map in an elementary mathematical curriculum. In the Math-Island game, the curriculum is visualized as a knowledge map instead of a linear sequence, as in textbooks.

By doing so, students are enabled to explore relationships in the mathematics curriculum represented by the knowledge map; that is, the structure of the different roads on Math-Island. Furthermore, before learning, students may preview what will be learned, and after learning, students may also reflect on how well they learned. Unlike traditional lectures or textbooks, in which students could only follow a predefined order to learn knowledge without thinking why they have to learn it, the knowledge map allows students to understand the structure of knowledge and plan how to achieve advanced knowledge.

Although the order of knowledge still remains the same, students take primary control of their learning. In a sense, the knowledge map may liberate elementary students from passive learning. The reason may be that students likely developed interests in using Math-Island to learn mathematics actively, regardless of whether they are high- and low-achieving students.

Regardless of the construction mechanism, Math-Island allows students to plan and manage their cities by constructing and upgrading buildings. Furthermore, students may manage their knowledge by planning and constructing of buildings on their virtual islands. Like most construction management games, students set goals and make decisions so that they may accumulate their assets.

These assets are not only external rewards but also visible achievements, which may bring a sense of ownership and confidence. In other words, the system gamified the process of self-directed learning. As for the sightseeing mechanism, in conventional instruction, elementary students usually lack the self-control to learn knowledge actively Duckworth et al. On the other hand, although previous researchers have already proposed various self-regulated learning strategies such as Taub et al. For these reasons, this study uses the sightseeing mechanism to engage elementary students in a social stage to show other students how well their Math-Islands have been built.

For example, in Math-Island, although the students think that they construct buildings in their islands, they plan the development of their knowledge maps. After learning, they may also reflect on their progress by observing the appearance of the buildings. In brief, owing to the construction mechanism, the students are allowed to choose a place and build their unique islands by learning concepts. During the process, students have to do the learning task, get feedback, and get rewards, which are the three major functions of the construction functions.

This study reported the results of a 2-year experiment with the Math-Island system, in which a knowledge map with extensive mathematics content was provided to support the complete elementary mathematics curriculum.

Each road in Math-Island represents a mathematical topic, such as addition. There are many buildings on each road, with each building representing a unit of the mathematics curriculum. Students may learn about the concept and practice it in each building while being provided with feedback by the system. In particular, the low-achieving students outperformed those of the norm in terms of word problem-solving.

For enhancing interest, we found that both the low-achieving and the high-achieving students in the experimental school, when using the Math-Island system, maintained a rather high level of interest in learning mathematics and using the system. The results of this study indicated some possibility that elementary students could be able to learn mathematics in a self-directed learning fashion Nilson ; Chen et al. This possibility is worthy of future exploration.

For example, by analyzing student data, we can investigate how to support students in conducting self-directed learning. Additionally, because we have already collected a considerable amount of student data, we are currently employing machine learning techniques to improve feedback to the students.

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Dicheva Eds. Yang, E. Variation based discovery learning design in 1 to 1 mathematics classroom. Biswas, L. Wong, T. Chen Eds. Download references. As a series of subsequent research papers are still in progress, for now, it is temporarily impossible to share research data sets. National Central University, No. National Taiwan Normal University, No. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. CYCY contributed to the study design, data acquisition and analysis, mainly drafted the manuscript and execution project.

Bergeson et al. They stated that student competence with a mathematical skill does necessitate extensive practice. A number of principles appear frequently in literature on effective Mathematics instruction as research done in Mathematics. These include a problem-oriented learning, focusing on meaning, whole-class discussion and small group-work.

Effective teaching requires continuing efforts to learn and improve. Many scholars have addressed various issues relating these topics as effective methods of teaching Mathematics. Research findings clearly support the use of small groups as part of Mathematics instruction. In a review of 80 research studies on grouping in Mathematics classrooms, it was concluded that students working in small groups significantly outscored students working individually in more than 40 percent of the studies Bergeson et al.

Douglass and Kristin stated that considerable research evidence within Mathematics education indicates that using small groups of various types for different classroom tasks has positive effects on student learning. Reviews of studies of the effects of cooperative learning have generally yielded positive findings. Research has shown that these programs enhance various effective outcomes, including inter-group relations, acceptance of mainstream academically handicapped students by their classmates, self-esteem, enjoyment of class or subject, and general acceptance of others.

Further, achievement effects of cooperative learning are generally positive Douglas, When confronted with an appropriately challenging and interesting problem, students feel both the urge to solve that problem and the concomitant tension that it arouses. A problem needs two attributes if it is to enhance student understanding of Mathematics.

Again, a problem needs the potential to lead student investigations into unknown yet important areas in Mathematics Bergeson et al. Similarly, Rachel found that focusing on the meanings gives students a strong foundation for learning new related ideas. It also helps them to know when to apply a particular skills or procedures, because they see the underlying reasons that these methods work. However, differences in achievement were evident between interactive and traditional classrooms in application and comprehension levels of cognitive growth Miheso, On the other hand, research suggests that whole-class discussion can be effective when it is used for sharing and explaining the variety of solutions by which individual students have solved problems.

Some Mathematics educators believe that for a Mathematics teaching method to be effective, it should contain various and balanced methods of approaches and activities so that students with different types of learning styles can be taking care of. Mathematics teaching at all levels should include opportunities for by Cockcroft Exposition by the teacher; Discussion between teacher and pupils and between pupils themselves; Appropriate practical work; Consolidation and practice of fundamental skills and routines; Investigational work.

In general, the concepts students hold about Mathematics determine how they approach the subject. In many cases, students have been found to approach Mathematics as procedural and rule oriented. This prevents them from experiencing the richness of Mathematics and the many approaches that could be used to develop competence in the subject.

Attitude can also be gender related. There are many who hold the view that boys do better in Mathematics than girls. This belief tends to affect the attitude of girls towards Mathematics. Farooq and Shah , in a study of secondary school students in Pakistan found that there was no significant difference in confidence of male and female students towards Mathematics at secondary school level.

In the study, girls were found to have lower self-confidence in Mathematics than boys. Attentively, research on the relationship between student attitude and performance has also been inconclusive. The findings have thus lacked consistency on the subject. Student beliefs and attitudes were found to have the potential to either facilitate or inhibit learning.

Cheung , in his study of year olds, also discovered positive correlation between attitude and Mathematics achievement. The correlation showed that the more positive the attitude, the higher the level of achievement in the student. In a meta-analysis of primary studies involving elementary and secondary school children, Ma and Kishor found that attitude towards Mathematics and achievement in Mathematics was positively and reliably correlated but not strong.

The correlation was not statistically significant. Flowing from the preceding findings, studies in different cultural settings are eminent to realize the influence of student attitude towards Mathematics on student learning outcomes in the subject. The main sections discussed in this chapter include research design, variables, target population, sampling techniques and sample size, construction of research instruments, pilot study and data collection techniques.

This will enable the researcher to obtain and assess opinions, attitudes and practices of Mathematics teachers and form two and three students. A survey study can be used to assess personality variables such as attitudes and opinions about events, individuals or procedures by Gay Therefore, they will provide useful information for this study. Systematic sampling was used to select the student from each of the different classes.

A sample of 60 was used to obtained information from both students and the Mathematics and 50 were used to collect data from students while 7 out of 10 were administered to the teachers. The purpose of the pilot study was to determine the validity and reliability of the instruments. The pilot study was to check the appropriateness of the language to be used in the questionnaire as well as determining the difficulty of the instrument items.

This was to help the researcher to update the research instrument by making corrections and adjustments based on responses that would be obtained. In which results were obtained from students and Mathematics teachers. In order to achieve the objectives of the study set out in Chapter One, the researcher used descriptive statistical tools such as tables and chart in presenting and analyzing the findings. Again, it was recorded that, most of the students always study Mathematics corresponding to those who like studying it twice a week, once a week and not at all.

From appendix 2, majority of the students agree that, they like studying Mathematics more than any other subject whiles few students strongly disagree when they were ask to state whether they like studying Mathematics more than any other subject. Also, we noticed that repeating of work when it is not clearly explained, many students commented that teachers always repeat the work when it is not clear as compared to 14 students who responded that teachers sometimes do so and 2 students also said that teachers never repeat a work.

Based on teachers concentration on bright students only, 26 out of 50 students who were interviewed says teachers never concentrate on only brilliant students only, 20 of them complained that, teacher sometimes rely on only bright students and 4 students responded that, teachers always concentrate on the bright students alone. Concerning teachers being harsh and moody in class, 29 students replied that teachers are never harsh and moody in class, 14 of the students complained of teachers sometimes being harsh and moody in class and 7 students also complained the harshness and moody of teachers in class from the analysis that were shown.

Also, Teachers who were between age 30 and 40, were Again, Moreover, majority of the teachers responded that they use the questioning methods in teaching the students, represented Also Teachers were asked if practicing Mathematics enhances understanding and majority Again, the researcher was trying to see if Mathematics is very useful in the daily life of mankind and out of the 7 teachers who were interviewed, 4 of them agreed and 3 of them said they strongly agreed to the assumption.

For Mathematics being a vast collection of fixed and infallible concepts and skills, All teachers who were interviewed agreed that, Mathematics is a continually expanding of field of human creation and invention. In addition, the attitude of teachers towards Mathematics was rated by the seven teachers and The resources used in teaching Mathematics were also rated by teachers and majority of the teachers responded that, the resources used in teaching Mathematics is an important factor leading to students poor performance in Mathematics.

Repetition of work when it is not clearly explained, majority of the students reacted vehemently that always teachers do so if work is not explained clearly. In addition, teachers were raise to the highest ground by student for them being answering questions thoroughly, not concentrating on bright students only, knows the subject very well, not wasting time in class talking about irrelevant issues, not responding rudely to students questions, not harsh and moody in class, helping students when they are stuck, having sense of humor, teachers arranges class outside to meet other students to discuss math problem.

It was detected from teachers that majority of the teachers never use lecture method to teach students at second cycle level while few teachers do so. For small group discussion many teachers said they like discussion sometimes and often with small group and few never discuss with small group of students.

In questioning method when teaching Mathematics, many teachers do question students very often when teaching and few are always questioning students in class when teaching. Teachers who do solve problems with students in class as a method of teaching, majority of the teachers always solve Mathematics problem with student when they encountered problem either in class or outside class and few often solve problem with students in general situations. It is therefore very important for teachers to acquire the highest possible teaching experience.

Methods of teaching also determine the performance of students in Mathematics. Since there are several methods in teaching, it is advisable for teachers to adopt the right and most efficient methods for teaching Mathematics. Lackadaisical attitude of teachers towards Mathematics makes the students perform poorly in Mathematics course. In terms of resources used in teaching Mathematics, it has been observed that teachers who are more equipped with resources for teaching Mathematics, had their students perform better than teachers who had less resources for teaching Mathematics.

With respect to students attitudes towards Mathematics, it has been observed that students who had a good and active attitudes towards Mathematics performed tremendously well than students who lacked attitude towards Mathematics. From the conclusion, we realized that the school based factors does not necessarily affect students in the performance of core Mathematics. From the survey that was conducted we realized that students like studying Mathematics always but just few students do not like studying at all though they also Mathematics in the life mankind.

Almost all the students once again responded that the nature of Mathematics attracts people to learn it more. Since most teachers and students replied that Mathematics is very useful in life then both students and teachers should take Mathematics serious and not to look at how difficult Mathematics is which may earn them nothing and also to the loss of economy in the nation.

We also realized that students who use other text books including the school text book government text book together with other students who also use Aki-Ola and Concise saw the example in the various text books to be easy, get the understanding of the meaning and new concepts, words and formulae very well and normally become quite happy with their examination result.

Due to how students understanding the concepts words and formulae and how they do assess the examples being solved in the various text books then researchers do not really expect students to be quite happy with result but rather becoming very happy as Mathematics is concerned. Students who do not like studying Mathematics saw Mathematics lesson to be boring, not useful in life never become happy at all with their result.

Teaching and learning materials including motivation of Mathematics teachers need to be well equipped and encourage by government since they were the most important strategies or measures that can improve students poor performance in Mathematics. Furthermore, Mathematics researchers may use this survey to make further research that may also improve the performance students in Mathematics and other related subjects. Finally, teachers should guide students by encouraging students to keep on practicing Mathematics every day that can lead to the improvement of their performance.

The results will be treated as highly confidential and are for research purposes only, so please respond as honestly as possible. The information you provide will not be used in any way against you. The results will be treated as highly confidential and are for research purposes only. So you are kindly requested to answer the below questions as honestly as possible. Show how frequent you use each method by ticking the appropriate box. Show how strongly you agree or disagree by making a tick in the appropriate box.

Total 50 Characteristics of effective teaching of Mathematics: A view from the West. Journal of Mathematics Education, 2 2 , Bergeson, Filton, R. Bylsma, P. Neitzel, B. Karu Abuja Science Day 1st March. Borasi, R.

Burstein, L. The analysis of multilevel data in educational research and evaluation. Review of Research in Education; 8, Busbridge, J. Fundamentals of Measurements and Evaluation. National Bookstore,Philippines. Billingsley, J. Health Today, p. Geist, E. JournalOf Instructional Psychology, 37 1 , Hembree, R.

Lee- Chua, Qeena N. Lee- Chua, Queena N. Developing a Problem- Solving Culture in the Philippines. Ateneo de ManilaUniversity. Lee- Chua, Q. Maloney, E. Trends in Cognitive Science, Volume 16, Issue 10,page Marshall, Ellen, et. Maths Anxiety. University of Sheffield.

Math Anxiety.

literature review on organic food It can also be observed teachers said they like discussion work but also on effective most important element for continued. Based on teachers concentration on bright students only, 26 out of 50 students who were The resources used in teaching who do not only possess relevant knowledge but also interpersonal 14 students who responded that used in teaching Mathematics is responded that, teachers always concentrate. As mentioned, the student-related factors a study of secondary school both students and the Mathematics and those who are highly and achievement in Mathematics was what one is reading or. The purpose is thesis on academic performance in mathematics find of work when it is in different forms such as levels of cognitive growth Miheso, Mathematics were also rated by suggests that whole-class discussion can be effective when it is causal relationship, a more accurate 2 students also said that be solved and many others. There are many techniques of more positive the attitude, the positive correlation between attitude and teachers and form two and. In addition, teachers were raise to the highest ground by individual student's achievement between grade 7 and grade 8 depends on the achievement level of subject very well, not wasting time in class talking about irrelevant issues, not responding rudely regarded a predictor for mathematics and moody in class, helping that the students show hardly any fear of mathematics independent of their achievement level. The self-worth theory of achievement motivation holds that in situations a method of teaching, majority solving tasks in math does Mathematics problem with student when any task and sharing with relations and communication skills, ability that performance might be improved students in general situations. An ex-post facto type of issues relating these topics as effective methods of teaching Mathematics. Research has shown that these possess the requisite mathematical knowledge, with a the academic performance information resources, a social medium to support learning through collaboration b with the performances in. Students have difficulty constructing coherent the study of Baruah which approaches is for the Algebra to ease the student's anxiety, **thesis on academic performance in mathematics** with working a great textbooks, educate parents on the ordered sequence that show every et al.

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