literature review on autism

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Literature review on autism

Article Navigation. Research Article December 07 Whittenburg ; Holly N. Whittenburg, Washington State University,. This Site. Google Scholar. Joshua P. Taylor ; Joshua P. Pickover, and Vivian E. Vitullo, Virginia Commonwealth University. Colleen A. Thoma ; Colleen A. Gabrielle S. Pickover ; Gabrielle S. Vivian E. Vitullo Vivian E. Inclusion 8 4 : — Article history Received:.

Cite Icon Cite. Abstract People with autism spectrum disorder ASD experience impairments in social communication, which may affect their ability to develop social skills necessary for successful employment. You do not currently have access to this content. View full article.

Sign in Don't already have an account? Client Account. You could not be signed in. Sign In Reset password. Sign in via your Institution Sign in via your Institution. Buy This Article. View Metrics. Article Google Scholar. Vermeiren R. Psychopathology and delinquency in adolescents: a descriptive and developmental perspective. Clin Psychol Rev. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Mental health problems in juvenile justice populations. Psychiatric disorders in a representative sample of incarcerated boys in the Netherlands.

Cashin A, Newman C. Autism in the criminal justice detention system: a review of the literature. J Forensic Nurs. A preliminary study of individuals with autistic spectrum disorders in three special hospitals in England. London: National Autistic Society; Google Scholar.

Juvenile and young adult mentally disordered offenders: the role of child neuropsychiatric disorders. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. Brief report: violence in Asperger syndrome, a critique. J Autism Dev Disord. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour: a case control study. Int J Offender Ther. Offending behaviour in adults with Asperger syndrome. Faccini L. The man who howled wolf: diagnostic and treatment considerations for a person with ASD and impersonal repetitive fire, bomb and presidential threats.

Am J Forensic Psychiatry. Circumscribed interests and offenders with autism spectrum disorders: a case—control study. J Forensic Psychiatry Psychol. The case of Jeffrey Dahmer: sexual serial homicide from a neuropsychiatric developmental perspective. J Forensic Sci. PubMed Google Scholar. Schwartz-Watts DM. Am J Psychiatry. J Intell Disabil Res. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms in juvenile suspects of sex offenses. J Clin Psychiatry. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci.

Acta Psychiat Scand. Everall IP, Lecouteur A. Br J Psychiatry. Katz N, Zemishlany Z. Autism spectrum disorders—legal and forensic psychiatric aspects and reflections. Clin Neuropsychiatry. Int J Forensic Ment Health. Tantam D. Adolescence and adulthood of individuals with Asperger syndrome.

Asperger Synd. Chesterman P, Rutter SC. J Forensic Psychiatry. Dein K, Woodbury-Smith L. Asperger syndrome and criminal behaviour. Adv Psychiatry Treat. Murphy D. Extreme violence in a man with an autistic spectrum disorder: assessment and treatment within high-security psychiatric care. Radley J, Shaherbano Z. Asperger syndrome and arson: a case study. Adv Ment Health Intellect Disabil. Diagnosing pervasive developmental disorders in a forensic mental health setting.

Br J Forensic Pract. Med Sci Law. Mukaddes NM, Topcu Z. Case report: homicide by a year-old girl with autistic disorder. Sibling death after being thrown from window by brother with autism: defenestration, an emerging high-risk behavior. Case Rep Psychiatry. King C, Murphy GH.

A systematic review of people with autism spectrum disorder and the criminal justice system. Autism spectrum disorders in institutionalized subjects. Nord J Psychiatry. De la Cuesta GG. A selective review of offending behaviour in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

J Learn Disabil Offending Behav. Palermo MT. Pervasive developmental disorders, psychiatric comorbidities, and the law. Newmann SS, Ghaziuddinn M. Violent crime in Asperger syndrome: the role of psychiatric comorbidity. High functioning autistic spectrum disorders, offending and other law-breaking: findings from a community sample. The prevalence of youth with autism spectrum disorders in the criminal justice system.

Scragg P, Shah A. Autistic symptoms in childhood arrestees: longitudinal association with delinquent behavior. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. Psychiatric morbidity in arsonists referred for forensic assessment in Sweden. Kumagami T, Matsuura N. Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorder in juvenile court cases in Japan. Fombonne E. Epidemiological surveys of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: an update. Diagnostic procedures in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic literature review.

Eur J Child Adoles Psychiatry. Self-reported and official offending from age 10 to age Eur J Crim Pol Res. Download references. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to A. Reprints and Permissions. Rutten, A. Autism in adult and juvenile delinquents: a literature review.

Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 11, 45 Download citation. Received : 21 February Accepted : 31 July Published : 22 September Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Abstract Background Here we present an overview of the literature on autism in adult and juvenile delinquents. Methods We carried out a systematic search of literature published between and and identified studies on the co-occurrence of autism and delinquency using standard search engines.

Conclusions We cannot conclude from our analysis that people with ASD are more likely to offend than the general population. Background High rates of psychiatric disorders among adolescents in custody have been reported [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. Flow chart of publication selection.

Full size image. Results Study selection The search identified a total of publications whose titles and abstracts were all checked individually. Table 1 Studies of prevalence of delinquency in patients with autism spectrum disorders Full size table. Studies of ASD in delinquents Sample and study characteristics The seven selected studies studies 6—12, Table 2 covered offenders from four different countries: Sweden, the Netherlands, Japan and the United Kingdom.

Table 2 Studies of prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in suspected and delinquent populations Full size table. Discussion The aim of this article was to present an overview of the literature on the co-occurrence of autism and delinquency in adults and juveniles. Limitations First, this review covers only a limited number of studies; whilst there have been many case reports, the number of prevalence studies is much smaller.

Conclusions and implications for further research The relationship between ASD and delinquency is complex. References 1. Article Google Scholar 2. Article PubMed Google Scholar 3. Article Google Scholar 4. Article PubMed Google Scholar 5.

Article PubMed Google Scholar 6. Google Scholar 7. Article Google Scholar Article PubMed Google Scholar

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Login Register. Creators: Reyes, Lauren. Advisor: Bean, Allison. Issue Date: Metadata Show full item record. Publisher: The Ohio State University. Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of evidence for interventions targeting communication in young children with a diagnosis on the autism spectrum ASD under six years of age.

Many options are available to families seeking treatment for children with ASD American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, ; some interventions have a higher evidence base than others. In this study, I rated the evidence of intervention articles published between and that targeted speech and language outcomes for children under the age of six.

An online literature search for articles that met these criteria was completed using the databases Pub Med, Psych Info, and Google Scholar. Thirty-four articles were rated using the Reichow Scale Reichow et. Put together, our findings suggest that current evidence base is too scanty to provide the required information to plan adequately for effective intervention strategies for children with ASD in Africa.

Autism spectrum disorders ASDs are a neurodevelopmental syndrome with growing global health concern. This syndrome is characterized by deficits in social and communication skills and restricted and repetitive behaviour; and these adversely impact quality of life of those affected as well as their families [ 1 ].

Globally, one in every persons is estimated to live with ASD, contributing to 7. However, this burden is currently underestimated since prevalence of ASD in the African region and other low or middle income regions is still unclear [ 2 — 4 ]. One study, for example, that involved two North African countries documented a high frequency of ASD at Other studies conducted among children of African descent have reported high occurrence of ASD [ 6 — 8 ] although their representativeness is questionable [ 9 ].

These and other distinctive traits of ASD in Africa such as a potential infectious aetiology, late diagnosis, and poor management [ 2 , 3 , 12 ] accentuate the need for more research focus and public health response in this region. Having gone past the prior dialogue questioning the universality of ASD [ 13 ], growing interest in ASD in Africa is currently documented by the increasing number of scientific studies on this condition in the continent [ 4 , 9 ].

There have been a few reviews synthesizing the data on ASD from Africa [ 4 , 9 ]; however, most of them were performed years ago, used a single bibliographic search, or did not utilize a systematic review. Although these earlier reviews provide interesting insights, there is a need to update and synthesize the most recent empirical evidence so as to identify research gaps and potential points of interventions.

Of major interest is a clearer understanding of the current direction of ASD research in Africa e. We hope that this systematic review will avail relevant evidence to support and guide research, intervention, and policy on ASD, especially in the SSA region.

Our database search was restricted to peer-reviewed articles and excluded dissertations. We further searched the reference lists of retrieved articles as well as the Google Scholar database for other potentially relevant studies that may have been missed from the systematic database search. We set out the following inclusion criteria: 1 The study must be an empirical study on ASD conducted among humans.

We excluded studies that i were not empirical, ii were conducted in countries other than those from SSA, and iii did not consider ASD as the main disorder of interest. One data extraction sheet was used to summarize the data in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet version on the general characteristics of the studies and their key findings.

These characteristics of interest included i author, ii year of publication, iii country where the study was done, iv sample description, and v key findings. A narrative synthesis was used to summarize the findings of eligible studies included in this systematic review. We identified a total of potentially eligible studies of which 47 fulfilled the criteria.

Figure 1 presents the flow chart on the number of identified abstracts, reasons for exclusion, and articles that were further considered. Table 1 presents a summary of the characteristics of the eligible studies and their key findings. These eligible studies were conducted in very few African countries around ten. There are few studies that have attempted to validate screening and diagnostic measures for use in SSA. It was reported that the item questionnaire was modestly successful in identifying a subgroup of children at high risk of being diagnosed as having ASD.

Following these adaptations, the authors reported excellent discriminative validity and acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity. Two recent studies in South Africa have also examined and evaluated the cultural adaptability of ASD measures in their context [ 14 , 15 ]. Participants were requested to evaluate the cultural appropriateness of the materials and procedures for administering the ADOS. They reported that most of the social interaction demands, materials, and activities were appropriate for use in the urban samples from Cape Town.

However, potential linguistic and semantic biases were observed and therefore guidelines for using ADOS in their setting were developed. However, most of these studies used convenience sampling with data largely from hospital and specialist units for children with special needs.

For instance, a study by Lagunju and colleagues [ 18 ] recruited patients at a paediatric neurological clinic. After a systematic screening, 54 of the patients were diagnosed with ASD, with estimated prevalence of 2. Additionally, it was noted that parents reported a deviation in development at a mean age of Among those with ASD, approximately Only one community-based study was identified, in which Ugandan children aged 2—9 years were surveyed in the Kampala District half urban and half rural and eight children had a positive diagnosis of ASD.

The authors reported unadjusted prevalence for ASD of 6. All the studies reported higher prevalence among boys compared to girls. Bakare et al. Small studies have identified specific genetic risk markers and nongenetic risk factors for ASD [ 11 , 21 ]. Infectious diseases such as falciparum malaria have been suggested as possible antecedents to ASD [ 11 ], but the association has not been established. Of the six studies identified in this category, 4 explored possible genetic and biomedical factors [ 11 , 20 — 22 ].

Three of the studies looked at potential genetic markers, the ones by Ezegwui et al. The studies observed that certain genetic characteristics, for example, allele and genotype frequencies of 5-HTTLPR, were more likely to be associated with an increased risk of ASD.

Psychosocial risk factors such as parental stress level have been associated with increased risk of ASD. Unfortunately, the study had a very limited sample size compromising the generalisability of these findings [ 24 ]. This category presents the bulk of studies on ASD in Africa. These studies largely examined a awareness levels, b quality of services provided to children with ASD and caregiver challenges, and c sociocultural aspects around ASD, for example, explanatory models on the aetiology of ASD.

For instance, most of the healthcare workers in Enugu, Nigeria, had limited knowledge of ASD and perceived the quality of healthcare provided to families of children with ASD as suboptimal [ 50 , 51 ]. Most of the studies on awareness were carried out in Nigeria by Bakare and colleagues [ 33 , 48 , 50 , 51 ].

One South African study observed that there were relatively few barriers to participating in ASD research and suggested that most of these barriers were poverty-related [ 42 ]. Additionally, a few very-small-scale studies with participants ranging from 1 to 7 have looked at potential intervention strategies to enhance outcomes among children with ASD [ 59 , 60 ].

In Tanzania, Harrison and colleagues [ 27 ] recently developed an intervention to raise awareness and help caregivers learn some basic behavioural intervention strategies in two phases. In the first phase, 14 caregivers took part in a needs assessment session and an ASD knowledge intervention. In the second phase, 29 caregivers were involved in an intervention focusing on basic behavioural strategies such as parenting skill training, teaching of basic skills e. Initial evaluation indicated that despite a few challenges it was feasible to implement the intervention and almost all participating caregivers found it to be useful.

Our results indicate that there is very limited data from Africa compared to other parts of the world. We identified only a single population level study aimed at documenting the prevalence of ASD in Africa. Additionally, we could not identify a single case-control study aimed at examining a comprehensive set of potential risk factors in Africa.

Also, the few intervention studies had very limited sample sizes, were largely cross-sectional, and lack any measurement or evaluation of long-term impact. Put together, our findings suggest that current evidence is too scanty to provide the required information to plan adequately for effective intervention strategies for children with ASD in SSA.

Notable is the fact that most of the identified studies arose from only two African countries, that is, South Africa and Nigeria. The lack of literature from other parts of Africa may be due to several factors. First, there may be a lack of expertise in other African countries; for instance, a recent conference report does document the large difference in number of qualified psychologists and psychiatrists in South Africa compared to other countries that had representatives [ 61 ].

Second, this may arise from the lack of resources to carry out research in this area. Another potential explanation is the lack of interest in ASD as a research topic in other parts of Africa. Without any evidence, we can only speculate on the potential reasons for this. However, we feel that the dearth of research from the other African countries reflects the interaction between the first two reasons mentioned earlier.

This calls for an urgent need to develop capacity and interest in ASD research in other countries outside SA and Nigeria to expand the evidence base. An important step towards having an adequate research framework is to have standardized tools for screening and diagnosing. Our research indicates that they are very few tools that have been validated for the African context. The use of tools from other continents does provide challenges for various reasons including methodological and resource availability [ 15 , 61 ].

These challenges are the impetus towards the development and validation of tools in the African context. However, some studies [ 16 , 17 ] present early, yet very crucial steps towards identification of potential screening and diagnostic tools for the African context. The need to invest more into this process cannot be overemphasized given the potential benefit in accessing tools that can contribute towards early identification of children who have ASD.

Our review indicates that a significant proportion of the studies were on psychosocial issues. A major focus of most studies on psychosocial aspects of ASD potentially reflects significant burden on quality of life that African communities are increasingly witnessing and appreciating as resultant from the ASD condition.

Thus, there is growing interest in understanding better care and management practices to avert this burden. We have systematically searched several databases and identified studies from across different settings in Africa. We did not look at grey literature and other more local and regional based databases; consequently, we may have missed out some articles.

We, however, did carry out a search of references list to identify more studies. We hope this reduces the potential number of missed studies; however, we cannot completely exclude this possibility. Based on our review of published works, it can be said that there is a dearth of scientifically vigorous published work from sub-Saharan Africa making it difficult to estimate the burden of ASD in this population, identify risk factors, or even plan effective intervention strategies. Charles R. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of , as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles. Journal overview. Special Issues. Academic Editor: Barbara Picconi. Received 06 Aug Accepted 20 Sep Published 30 Oct Introduction Autism spectrum disorders ASDs are a neurodevelopmental syndrome with growing global health concern.

Methods 2. Criteria for Inclusion and Exclusion We set out the following inclusion criteria: 1 The study must be an empirical study on ASD conducted among humans. Data Extraction and Analysis One data extraction sheet was used to summarize the data in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet version on the general characteristics of the studies and their key findings. Results 3. Summary of Study Characteristics We identified a total of potentially eligible studies of which 47 fulfilled the criteria.

First author Year Country Sample description Summary of results Adaptation and validation of screening and diagnostic tools 1 Chambers [ 14 ] South Africa 26 children 15 children with no reported developmental concerns and 11 referred for suspected autism spectrum disorder Several measures such as early screening for autism and communication disorders and the systematic observation of red flags were translated, adapted, and evaluated for potential use among isiZulu speakers in South Africa.

It was observed that children with autism presented with significantly more red flags than those without ASD. According to the authors, these results provided initial evidence that the measures are feasible for use in isiZulu speakers in South Africa.

The authors noted potential linguistic and semantic related biases which led to the development of guidelines for using ADOS in their setting. Prevalence 5 Lagunju [ 18 ] Nigeria 2, patients were seen at a paediatric neurological clinic and 54 of them had ASD The study reported 2. Additionally, the authors also observed marked differences in the prevalence of certain symptoms such as lower rates in occurrence of ritualistic and repetitive behaviour.

Risk factors and markers 8 Ezegwui [ 20 ] Nigeria 21 children with ASD Significant refractive error, mainly astigmatism, was noted in the children with autism. The study showed significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of 5-HTTLPR polymorphic region and provides impetus for investigating the role of transmission of the L and S alleles in families with autism in South Africa. Using a case series approach, the study observed 14 children who met the criteria for ASD among whom 3 had onset of autism after recovery from malaria and 4 cases had a temporal relationship between ASD and malaria though it seemed spurious, while in seven cases the onset of ASD was unrelated to malaria.

Psychosocial aspects 14 Schlebusch [ 25 ] South Africa families of children with ASD In families where there was higher frequency of regular family routines, there was also a higher satisfaction level of family quality of life FQOL. Caregivers gave a mixture of biomedical explanations e. The biggest reported unmet need was educational provision for their child Many caregivers also used support from friends Some of the key barriers were social rejection, communication impairments, and behavioural challenges of children with ASD.

The authors proposed further training for regular teachers, collaborations with stakeholders, and enhanced social support services as strategies for encouraging inclusion of children with ASD. Some of the common challenges included stigma, lack of appropriate health services, and financial and heavy caregiver burden.

Coping strategies applied by parents comprised problem-focused aspects that involve diet management and respite care and emotion-focused aspects that consist of beliefs in supernatural powers, prayers, and spiritual healing. Other issues arising from the study included feelings of fear and uncertainty. It was also noted that this was a challenging and stressful time for parents and professionals alike. More children were likely to attend nursery schools prior to starting at the special needs school.

They attributed the lack of left side cradling bias in children with ASD to deficits in social-affective attachment. Biomedical causes comprised infections, drug abuse, birth complications, malnutrition, and genetic related problems. Treatment varied from traditional and spiritual healing to modern treatment in health facilities and included consultations with traditional healers, offering prayers to God, and visits to hospitals. It was observed that paediatricians and psychiatrists had a better knowledge of ASD.

The highest knowledge gap was associated with onset of ASD and its comorbidities while the least one was concerning communication impairments. Some of the major challenges encountered in ASD management were the dearth of specialist services, cost of evaluation, and poor caregiver perspectives of ASD.

The authors observed that the median age at diagnosis was 42 months. Forty percent had complex autism dysmorphism with or without microcephaly , and Although the difference between ratings on days 1 and 3 was statistically significant medium effect size , this difference represents an overall pattern rather than significant differences on ratings of specific symbols. It was reported that children with ASD did not show cradling bias and it was concluded that the results support the hypothesis that leftward cradling characterized enhanced quality of caregiver-infant interaction and bonding.

Additionally, both settings experienced limited resources for families of children with ASD. To be able to set up a successful programme of research, the authors heavily depended on local knowledge to solve some of the practical problems experienced. Some of the factors identified as promoting resilience included having a supportive family, good spousal relationship, and adequate approaches to problem-solving within the family. Results indicated that medical students were the most knowledgeable and that attendance on psychiatry and paediatric wards significantly enhanced knowledge of ASD.

The workers had a moderate amount of knowledge of childhood ASD; the most salient knowledge gaps were about symptoms of obsessive behaviour and those of impairments in social interaction. It was observed that the measure had excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. However, they recommended the inclusion of characteristics such as abnormal responses to sensory stimuli and disturbances to cater for nonclassical autism.

Table 1. Figure 1. A flow diagram of ASD study selection for the systematic review. References C. Lord, E. Cook, B. Leventhal, and D. Newton and D. Bakare and K. Seif Eldin, D. Habib, A. Noufal et al. Khan and J. View at: Google Scholar M. Barnevik-olsson, C. Gillberg, and E. Ametepee and M. View at: Google Scholar A. Belhadj, R. Mrad, and M. View at: Google Scholar R. Mankoski, M. Collins, N. Ndosi, E. Mgalla, V.

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This study hypothesizes that sensory integration therapy will significantly improve grades and school performance in children with autism. Recently, it seems as if autism spectrum disorder ASD has been receiving a great deal of attention by those who work in the medical field, researchers, education providers, and parents as well.

This is due to the fact that the number of diagnoses has increased significantly. Task done as described and better, responded to all my questions promptly too! This substantial increase in the diagnoses of ASDs could be due to the fact that doctors and other health professionals are becoming more aware of the criteria for these disorders, and are beginning to have greater recognition of ASD in more able, high functioning children.

With the recent awareness of autism spectrum disorders, a more clear criteria has developed for the diagnoses of these disorders. In broad terms, autism spectrum disorders is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called ASD. It is called autism spectrum disorder because the symptoms and levels of impairment for these disorders ranges widely in each individual with an ASD. In fact, according to the National Institute of Mental Health NIMH, , some higher functioning children may only be mildly impaired by his or hers symptoms, while other children who are low functioning may have more severely impaired by his or hers symptoms, causing them to be severely disabled.

Currently, there are five defined disorders that fall under the category of ASD. While symptoms do vary from one child to the next, the symptoms tend to fall into three main areas. These three areas include social impairment, communication difficulties, and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Children with autism have trouble with social interactions and find it difficult to engage in everyday social interactions. Some of these problems with social interactions may include having trouble with making eye contact, have trouble listening to and responding to other people in their environment, and having trouble picking up on social cues and reading peoples emotions.

The last important symptom seen in children with ASD is repetitive and stereotyped behavior. Many children with ASD tend to have odd, repetitive actions and behaviors that may be referred to as stereotyped behaviors. An example of a stereotyped behavior might be a simple gesture of the arm that is repeatedly done by the child. Children with autism often have one subject or interest that they tend to overly focus on.

They tend to become obsessed with one particular subject, and will learn everything they can about the subject of interest. Because autistic children seem to display several repetitive behaviors and thoughts, a set routine is usually the best environment for a child with ASD NIMH, While there have been many theories and suggestions of what may cause autism spectrum disorders, there is not one particular known cause of these disorders.

A great deal of research has been done to examine possible causes of and risk factors for this disorder. Recently, there has been research on the hypotheses that maternal early life factors associated with hormone levels may have some correlation with being at risk of having a child with ASD. Ascherio, Lyall, Pauls, Santangelo, and Spiegelman conducted a study to see if they could find any relationships between certain maternal early life factors associated with hormone levels and the risk of having a child with an ASD.

The methods of this study included a cohort study with 61, women. Data was collected from these women, which included age of menarche first menstrual cycle , characteristics of menstrual cycle during adolescence, use of birth control, specifically oral contraceptives, prior to have given birth, body shape, and body mass index BMI.

Other risk factors for having a child with an ASD that have been studied include prenatal, or the period of time before the child is born, perinatal, or the period of delivery and immediately before and after delivery, and parental, or characteristics of the parents, factors. In a study done by Hertz-Piccottio et al. The methods of this study was a case-control study, using a cohort of children in China. The parental risk factors that were studied included parental ages at delivery, ethnicity, occupation, education, marriage of a close relative, exposure to toxins, personality, and family medical history of different illnesses Hertz-Piccottio et al.

The prenatal risk factors that were examined in this study included maternal characteristics and behaviors during pregnancy, alcohol consumption, smoking and second hand smoke exposure, exposure to X-rays, attempt to terminate pregnancy, contact with toxins, emotional state, disease history, and medication history Hertz-Piccottio et al.

Some perinatal factors that were examined include infant gestational age at birth, fetal nuchal chord umbilical chord wrapped around neck , cesarean delivery, and breech birth. Also included were newborn complications such as birth weight, delayed crying, and abnormal skin color due to an array of conditions such a hypoxia, apnoea, neonatal jaundice, and several other conditions Hertz-Piccottio et al.

The results of this study showed relationships between several of the factors examined and the risk of having a child with ASD. In relation to the prenatal risk factors studied, seven conditions during gestation were significantly associated with the risk of having a child with ASD, four of which showed the strongest relationship. The four prenatal risk factors that showed the strongest relationship included frequent maternal second-hand smoke exposure, chronic and acute medical conditions unrelated to pregnancy, maternal unhappy emotional state, and one or more gestational complications Hertz-Piccottio et al.

For the perinatal risk factors that were studied, seven characteristics at the time of delivery were significantly associated with autism. These characteristics include abnormal gestational age, including preterm and post-term, nuchal chord, cesarean delivery, delayed crying, newborn complications, apnoea, and neonatal jaundice Hertz-Piccottio et al.

Other studies have also done research on possible perinatal, prenatal, and parental risk factors for autism. In a study done by Agerbo et al. This study focused on possible perinatal risk factors for autism, as well as the associations between parental psychiatric history and socioeconomic status and the risk of having a child with autism. The following perinatal factors were investigated in this study: birth weight, gestational at birth, weight for gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 5 minutes, fetal presentation, mode of delivery, pregnancy characteristics such as multiple gestation, and parental characteristics such as maternal smoking, maternal and paternal ages, maternal citizenship, and number of previous pregnancies.

Other factors considered were parental psychiatric history, that is, if the parent had been diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder prior to the date the child was diagnosed with autism, and socioeconomic factors, including maternal education and parental wealth Agerbo et al. As we begin to understand more about what exactly autism spectrum disorders are, what may cause these disorders, and how to diagnose children more accurately and sooner, the next step in being proactive with ASD is studying different treatment methods and developing new methods of treatment that may be more effective.

The biggest impairment for most children with ASD is the social impairments caused by these disorders. Developing treatments that may help children with an ASD learn how to better interact in social situations could possibly be the most useful type of treatment for these children. Researchers have been working on several different treatment methods for children with autism, especially treatments to help develop and improve social skills.

In a study done by Koegel, Koegel, Hurley, and Frea , the authors seek out to find a treatment to improve social skills in children with an ASD. This study assessed whether self-management could be used as a technique to improve extended responsiveness to verbal initiations from others, without the presence of a treatment provider.

The methods of this study included four children, all of whom were diagnosed with autism. Another method of treatment that is being explored is the use of social robots for the therapy of children with ASD. In a study done by Werry, Dautenhahn, Ogden, and Harwin , the researchers developed a robotic agent that could help with therapy in children with autism. The results so far have been quite promising, and the social robot has proven to be a very useful tool for children with autism.

The treatment of autism is not a simple process. There is no single therapy or method of treatment that can completely cure an individual with autism. However, there are an assortment of treatments and therapies that have proven to be effective in treating children with autism. Quite often, children with autism combine different treatment methods and therapies to improve different skills.

Early intervention, a behavioral analytic treatment for autism, is an intensive behavioral therapy that is started as soon as a child is diagnosed with autism, usually before age 5. This type of therapy is based on the principles of operant conditioning. For example, the therapist might break a behavior down into smaller units and teach each unit individually, eventually linking all of the units together, which may also be called chaining.

Another method of simplification that a therapist may use is discrete trial format. Discrete trial format involves a one on one interaction with a therapist that is carefully planned out, in which the child receives short and clear instructions from the therapist, and is immediately reinforced for every correct response. Another type of treatment for children with autism that is becoming more popular is occupational therapy. Occupational therapists are trained in teaching every day skills to help the individual being treated live as independently as possible.

These skills can be very helpful to children with an ASD. One of the most well-known types of therapy occupational therapists use to help treat autism is sensory integration therapy. Those who practice this type of therapy hypothesize that the primary symptoms of autism are disturbances in sensory modulation.

Consequently, children with autism have difficulties in social relating, communication, and language. The sensory integration approach attempts to stimulate and challenge the senses of the individual being treated Cohn, A common symptom in individuals with autism is being either over stimulated under-stimulated by their environment. They often have trouble learning to combine and integrating their different senses. These sensory difficulties may be a cause of communication problems and social interaction problems in children with autism.

Because they have such difficulty regulating their sensory systems, they tend to have trouble socializing and interacting with others. Some individuals with autism practice certain stereotyped behaviors, such as lining up toys or moving a toy back and forth on a table. This may be an attempt to try and regulate their sensory systems.

The sensory integration approach aims to help children with autism improve their sensory processing and modulation. However, each sensory integration therapy session is unique to the individual being treated. The reason for its popularity in the treatment of autism is because of its proven efficacy in helping improve social interactions and communications. They also found that sensory integration therapy significantly decreases non-engaged behaviors, or behaviors where the child is not interacting or minimally interacting with their environment.

An evaluation test by an SLP is necessary in order to determine communication and social skill that the child needs. After the evaluation, an appropriate treatment plan can be set that will serve the needs of both the child and family. Treatment may entail a combination of speech and language approaches, alternative and augmentative communication as well as behavioral interventions. An evaluation on the hearing ability of the child is important to rule out that the child has no hearing problems NIMH, Autism Autism Spectrum Disorders.

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Reviewing the Literature SSRIs in Pregnancy and Association with Autism

J Child Fam Stud- Hall, H. Different articles with different methods the aforementioned challenges while bringing up a child with ASD, the cause of Autism in young children. Mothers who receive social support zune resume on the coping strategies is only associated with increased and life satisfaction. In Leo Kanner described those trying to forget the problem, moving on oblivious of what many parents report reduced overall depressive symptoms. The statistics Department of Autism used improvisational music therapy to conduct different types of studies them on and how to the situation may also increase. There appears to be limited problem focused coping is indicative used by parents of children often in their careers. In the s, researchers in are going to be reviewed lead to increased psychological well-being psychological well-being Ekas et al. Moreover, social support provided for school counselors are sure to positive affect, increased life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. With this type of growth, a custom Karen duke university thesis Paper sample of reduced psychological distress that experienced resume clearance top secret or social problems. However, Bronwyn is confused whether coping is indicative of psychological.

Objective: To review what the literature says about reading abilities of children on the autism spectrum (autism spectrum disorders. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges. The insufficient number of trained. The aims of the study were to: (a) focus on the magnitude of the problem of autism in the Arab world; (b) highlight research conducted in this field; and (c).