Read some immigration history or immigrant autobiography? Research -- This will give you a set of ideas to respond to, question, challenge, or extend, and help you focus your topic. MLA bibliography will be most useful to most of you, although historical indexes might help as well.
Formulate a thesis, an argument or position that requires defense or support i. This may support your thesis, or may make you realize you want to change the argument you initially wished to make in some way. CHECK -- the purpose of most academic papers is two-fold. They 1 demonstrate you know what has been said about this topic in the past and understand it; 2 show that you have an original intervention or contribution to make.
Paper due Thursday 26 April in my office by 4 p. Purpose: forces you to start the project, gives me something concrete with which to raise questions, steer you toward other sources, or push your argument in certain directions. The prospectus a. Second, it is to some extent a promotional document, intended to explain not only what you are doing but why some audience ought to be interested in it.
The prospectus should include order of items may vary, or use the order given, though of course in paragraph form with appropriate transitions, etc. For whom? This should not be an outline of your topics or sections but rather an outline of your major supporting points.
In the past. Decide how general or broad your opening should be. If you have ever used Google Maps or similar programs, that experience can provide a helpful way of thinking about how broad your opening should be.
Try writing your introduction last. The writing process can be an important way to organize your ideas, think through complicated issues, refine your thoughts, and develop a sophisticated argument. However, an introduction written at the beginning of that discovery process will not necessarily reflect what you wind up with at the end.
You will need to revise your paper to make sure that the introduction, all of the evidence, and the conclusion reflect the argument you intend. Some people find that they need to write some kind of introduction in order to get the writing process started. Open with something that will draw readers in. Consider these options remembering that they may not be suitable for all kinds of papers :.
Pay special attention to your first sentence. Start off on the right foot with your readers by making sure that the first sentence actually says something useful and that it does so in an interesting and polished way. Ask a friend to read your introduction and then tell you what he or she expects the paper will discuss, what kinds of evidence the paper will use, and what the tone of the paper will be.
If your friend is able to predict the rest of your paper accurately, you probably have a good introduction. The placeholder introduction. If you had something more effective to say, you would probably say it, but in the meantime this paragraph is just a place holder. The restated question introduction. Restating the question can sometimes be an effective strategy, but it can be easy to stop at JUST restating the question instead of offering a more specific, interesting introduction to your paper.
The professor or teaching assistant wrote your question and will be reading many essays in response to it—he or she does not need to read a whole paragraph that simply restates the question. This introduction begins by giving the dictionary definition of one or more of the words in the assigned question.
Anyone can look a word up in the dictionary and copy down what Webster says. If you want to open with a discussion of an important term, it may be far more interesting for you and your reader if you develop your own definition of the term in the specific context of your class and assignment.
If you feel that you must seek out an authority, try to find one that is very relevant and specific. Perhaps a quotation from a source reading might prove better? Dictionary introductions are also ineffective simply because they are so overused.
Instructors may see a great many papers that begin in this way, greatly decreasing the dramatic impact that any one of those papers will have. This kind of introduction generally makes broad, sweeping statements about the relevance of this topic since the beginning of time, throughout the world, etc. It is usually very general similar to the placeholder introduction and fails to connect to the thesis.
Instructors often find them extremely annoying. The book report introduction. This introduction is what you had to do for your elementary school book reports. It gives the name and author of the book you are writing about, tells what the book is about, and offers other basic facts about the book.
It is ineffective because it offers details that your reader probably already knows and that are irrelevant to the thesis. Writing an effective introduction can be tough. Try playing around with several different options and choose the one that ends up sounding best to you! Just as your introduction helps readers make the transition to your topic, your conclusion needs to help them return to their daily lives—but with a lasting sense of how what they have just read is useful or meaningful.
Check out our handout on conclusions for tips on ending your paper as effectively as you began it! We consulted these works while writing this handout.
Q: What does A: As a noun it means a piece of paper or document that someone gives out to everyone. Like for example a teacher might give handouts to all of the students. As a verb it means to distribute something to many people.
Example sentences using "Handout" Q: Please show me example sentences with give you a handout. A: Did she want to give you a handout? Let me give you a handout. Stop telling me to give you a hand out I'm not going to! Is the government going to give you a handout? Q: What is the difference between handout and leaflet? A: There isn't much of a difference. Every leaflet is a handout but not every handout is a leaflet. I would say " handout " to mean something I was given at school or at an event, something I willingly accepted.
I would say "leaflet" to mean advertising material that people give out on the street or put in my letterbox. This is something a lot of native speakers will have different opinions on though, and none of them are wrong.
Q: What is the difference between handout and subsidy? A: Government handouts are often given to people in need of heip, such as the poor or disabled. Food stamps being an example. Subsidies are usually given to businesses. Renewable energy companies recieve subsidies to help them compete and develop their technologies. Farmers recieve subsidies to grow corn for ethanol production.
A: Check the question to view the answer. There is one question I am reliably asked where I know my response will raise eyebrows:. I understand the pain and suffering behind this question all too well. Yes, I know. And there were people at the meeting who want to review what they learned. You have to send something after the meeting. I can explain with a brief story. I was gifted such a privilege while attending the ClickTale Forum. Amongst a stellar speaker lineup, it was Godin the Great who truly stole the show with his musings on the death of mass marketing and the birth of the individualized tribe.
I could not conceive of an elevated enough question to ask this god of the stage. Someone else believed they did. A young gentleman in the front excitedly raised his hand, summoned the attention of Lord Godin and queried,. Plates crashed, cars screeched to a halt. He may as well have asked Seth to please pass the jelly. I am your guide.
A well-designed live presentation deck needs you to guide the audience through your narrative. And for me, the priority is on the live presentation because that is where you truly get to shine as a partner with your teams and clients. He explains in his ground-breaking presentation bible, Presentation Zen :. Documents are documents. Attempting to have slides serve as both projected visuals and as stand-alone handouts makes for bad visuals and bad documentation.
Preparing a proper document…frees you to focus on what is most important for your particular audience on your particular day. Fellow presentation guru Nancy Duarte of Duarte agrees eloquently in her incredible book slide:ology :.
They will not do both. So ask yourself this: is it more effective if they listen, or more effective if they read? In fact, Nancy quotes Seth Godin in her book on the peril of presenting slideuments to a live audience:. And there it comes full circle. And it is for these reasons why I send two documents: one tailored for my live show, and one for my no-shows. Thus, what follows is my step-by-step, unpatented, top-secret, have-to-kill-you-now blueprint for creating a separate presentation handout with less than an hour of rework in PowerPoint.
But, I never said you were creating them both from scratch. This approach leverages a technique I use well before the presentation, during the brainstorming and design process. I dictate my speaking points in a professional yet approachable manner, like a conversation instead of an academic lecture. Which…is how I like to speak to my audiences, large or small.
But, I never said you were creating them both from scratch. This approach leverages a technique I use well before the presentation, during the brainstorming and design process. I dictate my speaking points in a professional yet approachable manner, like a conversation instead of an academic lecture.
Which…is how I like to speak to my audiences, large or small. But, I also use the microphone on my Evernote app to dictate notes as well. You can also simply type your speaking notes into each box; just make sure to use a conversational manner. It is an efficient technique that saves me loads of time while walking the two document line.
The Handouts view is so lousy for handouts, it should be sent to the corner. In your PowerPoint presentation, open your Notes Master. The Notes Master is similar to the Slide Master your time-saving best friend in that you can change the font family, color and size. You can also adjust the size of the slide on the Notes Pages and change page orientation. Here is also where you can add your company logo to every slide to comply with corporate information distribution policies.
Here, and only here NOT on your live slides, please. Although you can visibly add shapes and lines, or remove the slide border in the Notes Master, the changes will not show on your Notes Pages. A bit of false advertising, but you can always add those elements to the individual Notes Pages. Only in the case of handouts and phone-only presentations do I recommend page numbers.
For every slide, format the notes you wrote using bold, numbered lists, and here, bullet points are ok. Remember, you are not there to guide them, so write your notes in a professional yet conversational manner. Consolidate some slides if you feel a single idea is too sparse for one slide. Remember, you want to pace your live audience one idea at a time.
Example below:. For the handout, I can consolidate and add number annotations to take them through corresponding points in my notes without using up 3 whole pages. See the Notes Pages view below:. Note: all of the extra images and annotations you add to the Notes Page will only display in Notes view. I hope this post provided just one solution to this age-old dilemma. But it is a practical, repeatable method that takes advantage of several built-in steps in my trusted presentation handout process.
This post was inspired by a recent post on presentation handout philosophy by my friend Cole Nussbaumer Knaflic of Storytelling With Data, where she shares some helpful tips for creating a presentation handout. And considering how pervasive this dilemma is for practitioners and professional speakers, it is most definitely time for that. Lea is a digital analyst and marketer turned Data Storytelling Advocate. She trains thousands of digital practitioners and consultants in the art and science of impactful data presentation through live workshops, speaking engagements, online courses, her blog and five-star rated podcast, The Present Beyond Measure Show.
Consequently, my audience is never quite ready for my answer, which is: I never, ever distribute my live presentation slides as a handout after a presentation. As a verb it means to distribute something to many people. Example sentences using "Handout" Q: Please show me example sentences with give you a handout. A: Did she want to give you a handout? Let me give you a handout.
Stop telling me to give you a hand out I'm not going to! Is the government going to give you a handout? Q: What is the difference between handout and leaflet? A: There isn't much of a difference. Every leaflet is a handout but not every handout is a leaflet. I would say " handout " to mean something I was given at school or at an event, something I willingly accepted. I would say "leaflet" to mean advertising material that people give out on the street or put in my letterbox.
This is something a lot of native speakers will have different opinions on though, and none of them are wrong. Q: What is the difference between handout and subsidy? A: Government handouts are often given to people in need of heip, such as the poor or disabled. Food stamps being an example.
Subsidies are usually given to businesses. Renewable energy companies recieve subsidies to help them compete and develop their technologies. Farmers recieve subsidies to grow corn for ethanol production. A: Check the question to view the answer. Other questions about "Handout" Q: I prepared this handout just for review for you guys. Take one and pass them around.
Does this sound natural?