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Anti-human thesis the perfect message

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Police officials are essentially paid off to keep quiet and make extra i ncome easily Bales , If officials in high power receive some of the pro ceeds, then why would they need or want to deter the growth or expansion of slavery? On the contrary, these officials keep the slavery industry intact to receive such pe rks.

According to the Human Rights Watch researcher for Human Trafficking, Martina Van denberg: Traffickers often use bribes sometimes in the form of cash, sometimes free sexual services to entice police and officials to lo ok the other way, to gain protection and to circumvent supposedly impenetr able borders. Complicity not only guarantees impunity for traffickers; it sends a message to trafficked women that their traffickers enjoy i mpunity and that they cannot escape Malarek , Traffickers are often easily able to persuade [cor rupt] government officials, police, and other law enforcement and security offi cials to aid them within their networks, transportations, and movement of illegal migrants, women, and young girls.

It is very unfortunate that those with power, arms [weapons], and high ranking status do not always perform their duty to protect people or dete r slavery; rather they try to profit from the industry Bales , Instead, they conti nuously undermine international law and domestic law by abusing, raping, and greedily t aking advantage of innocent lives Bales , In addition, con temporary slavery adds the disposability of human beings as an attractive feature to perpetr ators Bales , Corruption occurs everywhere, from the wealthy United States t o the poor country of Nigeria.

This exemplifies how persistent, deep-rooted, and difficult corruption c an be, especially in the poorer countries of Southeast Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Easte rn Europe. Ironically, the country that is trying to en d slavery with the best legislation is the same one whose government and police officials are trying to keep the industry intact by contributing to its existence Malarek , Human Deception Human deception is a common method that is used to trick people into slavery.

False employment advertisements, promises of marria ge, student grants, and other similar offers are large enticements for those look ing to pay for school, bring in extra income to a one-parent household, or even to obtain a job due to unemployment Altink , 5. Once individuals are taken into custody by traffickers, their personal documents are taken and they are no longer free.

T his form of deception is not limited to females, but also occurs with males. For exampl e, impoverished men living in the urban centers in Brazil are particularly vulnerable to this sort of deception when recruiters promise them lucrative jobs in the rural regions Bales , It is PAGE 32 20 through these methods that many become enslaved. In certain regions, particular deceptive practices make luring people into slavery easier.

In Latin America, the smallest unit is the family, which often represents the closest and tightest bond. It is also not uncommon for well-trusted people su ch as close family, friends, and relatives to contribute to the enslavement of a per son.

In Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Africa, this tactic is prevalent, where children are often sent to live with other relatives and then become enslaved and exploited. The next section focuses on significant factors Kevin Bales found in predicting the factors that give rise to slavery. Previous Research of Factors Contributing to Global Slavery Through a multiple regression analysis, Kevin Bale s discovered four statistically significant factors that contributed to the overall growth of global slavery.

Detailed in his book, Understanding Global Slavery , the four main predictors of global slavery 5 While this is true for most countries of the world, the emphasis on family is particular strong in Latin America and Asia, where several generations often live t ogether under one household. This is not to say that family is not viewed as being important elsewhere; rather cultural factors help to reinforce this notion of a close-knit family in those regions.

PAGE 33 21 are ranked in order of significance : government and police corruption, a high level of infant mortality rate, a high proportion of the pop ulation that is below the age of 14 years, and a low GDP per capita Bales , Infant mortality rate is not used in the analysis because it is not discussed at great lengt h in the literature as a significant factor contributing to the growth of slavery. However, a similar element is captured by the human development index, which measures the life ex pectancy at birth.

In addition, although the population below the age of 14 years i s not stressed in the literature as a main factor contributing to the growth of slavery, it has been cited as being conducive to the child sex tourism industry. Finally, low GDP p er capita is illuminated in the human development index, where the standard of living, as measured by real GDP per capita, is taken into account as part of the overall index.

Other major factors discussed in this chapter that are included in the statistical analysis include poverty which goes alongside unem ployment and political instability. This is agreed upon by most scholars, and is therefore not included in the analysis.

Although human deception is widespread and contributes to people becoming en slaved, it is a variable that is hard to quantify. For this reason, it is excluded from the statistical analysis. In short, huma n development which highlights life PAGE 34 22 expectancy at birth and real GDP per capita , unemp loyment which complements poverty , corruption, political instability, and th e compliance with the anti-trafficking act are the six variables discussed in the statistical analysis.

The next chapter discusses human trafficking, main ly in terms of sexual exploitation, where it exists, and the factors prev alent in different countries around the world that give rise to this type of slavery. It is also the third most profitable trafficking trade after drugs and weapon s Altink , 2; Miko , 1; Malarek , 4; Farr , 21; U.

Whil e the majority of those trafficked is done so for non-sexual purposes, a qu arter of the entire [trafficked] population is exploited sexually, a figure that is currently on the rise Obokata , Apart from sexual exploitation, human trafficking also involve s forced labor in areas such as domestic servants, farm workers, factory workers, a nd other laborers Farr , ; Kempadoo , 7, 11; Gerdes , 25; Parrot and C ummings , ; Possley The focus of this chapter is primarily on human trafficking for sexual exploi tation.

However, forced labor remains an important component of the trafficking industry, and will be mentioned briefly throughout this chapter. What follows is a discuss ion of what human trafficking is, the trafficked population worldwide, profits generated by this industry, the differences between human trafficking and smuggling, the proces ses and stages of human trafficking, and finally, where this form of slaver y exists around the world.

Human Trafficking Defined The concept of trafficking in persons and slavery in general predated even the concept of writing; however many denote this form a s a modern slavery given the evolvement and changes it has undertaken. There are several competing definitions of human t rafficking, with little agreement among scholars, researchers, policymakers, and huma n rights activists about the exact nature of the industry Kempadoo , vii.

Concr etely defining the term has remained problematic, particularly at the national level th at is, within a country. The U. This definition, however, would not serve victims e xploited in the non-sexual industry. Both can lead to being trafficked, and often, trafficked victims are exploited through prostitution.

Despite numerous definitions of human trafficking, the thesis adheres to that of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Traffickin g in Persons, Especially Women and Children of Article 3a. This definition holisticall y describes how people are 8 Since , there have been more than internati onal slavery treaties which include human trafficking signed; yet rarely did they all use a universal defini tion as to what constituted slavery or its counterparts Bales , 3 New Slavery.

The first tool that was u sed to condemn slavery was the Declaration Relative to the Universal Abolition of the Slave Tra de, or the Declaration as it was known Bales , This was instrumental in elevating the issue of slavery to a crim e and making people accountable. Moreover, at the end of , countries had signed the protocol, and ratified it, making it an international success United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime , 3; Rosenthal This protocol provides countries an excellent universal fra mework to criminalize those involved in the trafficking trade, and to assist and protect the victims.

PAGE 38 26 trafficked, through what means, and for what purpos es. It is especially important to note that trafficked persons within this definition are included in both the sexual and nonsexual sectors of slavery. The Human Trafficking Population On the low end of the scale, an estimated , to , innocent lives are stolen each year, and some even fatally lost to thi s treacherous trade Bales , 39; U.

Approximately 70 percent of these victims are female and 50 percent are children, many of whom are being forced into the commercial sex trade U. De partment of State Of the approximate 4 million people who are trafficked aro und the world each year, over one million are trafficked into the sex industry Farr , 3; Gerdes , The Intern ational Organization of Migration IOM estimates that between , and 2 million women are trafficked across international borders yearly Masika , 10; Gerd es , In the IOM increased their estimate to 2.

In g eneral, since the mids, PAGE 39 27 approximately 30 million women have been sold into prostitution Flowers , In ad dition, they also highlight the fact that traffickers move with ease within and across countr ies, and that permeability between borders is rather fluid. Figure 1 page 26 clearl y highlights this challenge in the varying estimates of trafficking. As illustrated by variou s NGOs and institutions, the true figure for worldwide human trafficking remains elusive; es timates range from , to 4 million people being trafficked annually.

In fact, such clarification was not mad e and should not be presumed. PAGE 40 28 Human Trafficking and Smuggling 11 Human trafficking and human smuggling are often th ought of as being the same, or synonymous with one another. According to the U. Smuggled persons are treated as violating the law, such as when they cross international borders without proper documents; tra fficked persons are seen as victims due to the exploitative nature of the work they are being forced to perform, although they are often treated as criminals when captured or det ained.

An important difference between smuggling and trafficking is that the forme r have the choice and freedom to leave their current situation at any time. Victims of trafficking do not have that opportunity and are enslaved and subjected to explo itation United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime , It should be noted that trafficking can involve the illegal entr y of a person as well. Therefore crossing an international border is a pre requisite for smuggling.

Smuggling, in many instances leads to human trafficking, which is a reason why both are often though t of to be similar in nature. PAGE 41 29 Figure 1. Bangkok, Thailand: United Nations. PAGE 42 30 A final note on the differences between smuggling and trafficking one sometimes follows the other.

While the two are different in scope, they are interconnected in many ways and often migrant worke rs in many impoverished nations seeking a better life are forced to perform work ag ainst their will. For example, consider the many maquiladoras or maquilas present in the United States, particularly in the larger cities e.

Many migrants work long, arduous hours in a variety of sectors ranging from agriculture and factory-work, to manufacturing and construction Depending on the locale, they are exploited in terms of labor and violence, and women sometimes subjected to sexual exploitation.

Smuggled persons are not taken into account in the statistical analysis, since they are not considered victims of slavery. Howeve r, should they be deemed trafficked, they will then be included as part of that populati on. It should be noted that the statistical model does not distinguish between different types of slavery, and the distinction between smuggled persons and trafficked persons ser ves to specifically illuminate how trafficked victims are identified.

The Processes and Stages of Human Trafficking The process of human trafficking is very deceptive and brutal, yet organized and sequential. What follows is an example of how indi viduals become trafficked. Human deception is very widespread, and is a common tactic used to pro cure individuals worldwide.

This deception will be detailed within the discussion of where human trafficking exists. A good number of trafficked victims co mplement the drug and weapons industry, as well as organized criminal networks. According to the Kevin Bales, there are eight stag es that define the human trafficking process Bales , : 1. The Context of Vulnerability 2. Recruitment 3. Removal 4. Transportation 5. Establishment of Control 6. Arrival 7. Exploitation 8. Resolution Stage 1 is the juncture at which traffickers caref ully choose their victims.

Poverty and poor socioeconomic conditions are key factors i n determining the victims. While the most vulnerable populations, such as the elderly, d isabled, very poor, or sick seem likely candidates given their conditions, they are the one s most often avoided Bales , It is their frail condition that makes them less valuable to the industry. For this, the young, strong, and healthy are considered prime tar gets however, not necessarily from the poorest regions.

Many young women seek financial support for college, other schooling, or additional income to help support family and children. For this reason, level of education does not seem to have a significant PAGE 44 32 correlation to becoming trafficked.

Most are false ly deceived, and thereby become trafficked. However, children who have not yet att ained a high school-level of education are vulnerable to the deceptions and tricks employe d by the large span and types of traffickers. Apart from their age and general navet, ch ildren without an adequate education in terms of literacy face this vulnerability as w ell. Stage 2 or recruitment, varies from victim to vict im, but generally involves certain characteristics.

To do this, they lure them with attractive goods. In addition, older women and people in general are viewed as more trust-worthy and respect able. In Eastern Europe, false and deceptive unemployment schemes draws in vulnerable people. Again, human deception plays a major role in trafficking human beings, esp ecially when a greater level of trust is built or already in existence, such as between frie nds, family, or significant others. Today, Central and Eastern Europe loom in the traf ficking industry, with disillusioned women and young girls looking for bet ter socioeconomic opportunities and stability.

After the fall of the Soviet Union in t he early s, political instability as a government disbanded threatened the well-being of people, by allowing traffickers to 12 While many countries have some sort of mandatory educ ational requirements, they are not rigorously enforced. While education fares w ell in many European countries, major Asian countries e.

Most of the developed world focused on establishing these developing countries into trading partners, than investing in education. Less than half that amount could be used to provide a primary education to every child on Earth that does not have one Altink 19 95, What is distressing is that the top industrial nations, United States, Russia, France, Britain, and Chi na, sell nearly 90 percent of all weapons to lessdeveloped countries Altink , PAGE 45 33 prey on their vulnerabilities.

As unemployment ros e, people migrated out of the former Soviet Union, increasing their susceptibility to be come targets of traffickers in the midst of traveling through unfamiliar countries. In shou ld be noted that country differences will not be distinguished in the statistical analysis.

Stage 4 or the transportation phase, involves the trafficking of the victims, and upon arrival to their destination, total exploitati on. Given that large numbers of people are trafficked through many countries, the human tr afficking process is quite organized. Without their passports, 13 The units generally imply what services are taken care of For additional details as to what each subunit specifically does, please refer to Bales , PAGE 46 34 travel or identity cards, many have no way of leavi ng their situation safely.

Victims are introduced to the other victims at this point, and usually realize their enslavement and deception. Brainwashing and psychological and mental trauma fu rther disorient the victims. Stage 6 or arrival, sees the complete control over the victim being carried out and the exploitation phase begins. Deception becomes c lear at this point to the victim once at their destination. After reaching their destina tion, victims enter complete exploitation. After time, with repeated abuse and violence, the victims begin to accustom themsel ves to this treatment, both mentally and physically Bales , In nearly every case of human trafficking for sexual exploita tion, more than one type of crime is involved, including fraud, kidnap, assault, rape, a nd sometimes even murder Bales , Table 1 further highlights the crimes a ssociated with the trafficking process, particularly the exploitative portion.

Human traff icking includes a multitude of crimes, which many countries do not even recognize. Those that unfortunately become pregnant are sometimes sent fo r an abortion. In many countries, this procedure is done illegally, such as in Thaila nd, further increasing complications and risks to the life of the mother and baby Bales 9, In some rare circumstances, when a woman gives birth, the baby is taken and sold by th e owner of the brothel; the woman then returns to work almost immediately.

The final state, while involving physical freedom, may not help the majority of victims to recuperate, rehabilitate, and assimilate back into society. Rehabilitation of the victim is an area that needs further refinement and attention in order to prevent such people from becoming victims of trafficking again, or from expl oiting themselves.

Overall, people are trafficked in much the same wa y a new product is manufactured -put on the assembly line, shipped o ut throughout various transnational or sometimes domestic networks and points of ship ment, and then used. Traffickers have extensive Table 1. Italics indicate that the offenses are perpetrated against the individual victim. This chain assembly line is what helps to distribute the traff icked victims in an organized and orderly manner to their chosen destinations.

It is no wonder then that most organized 14 Apart from the sexual exploitation, women and young ch ildren can also be involved in labor intensive work, domestic servitude, and the like apart from their main duty as a sex slave. PAGE 49 37 crime groups, such as the Italian and Russian mafia the Japanese yakuza, and Chinese triads, are all heavily involved in this highly pro fitable trade Altink , 5.

Corruption heavily encourages this trade because of the strong connections that are made between powerful officials and traffickers. Trafficking may occur internally within a country or internationally across count ries Barry , ; Renzetti et al. Certain countries ser ve primarily as source or origin countries,15 those where individuals are trafficked out of; oth ers serve as destination countries, where individuals are trafficked to; and finally, some as transit countries, where trafficked individuals are en route to their destination country via that particular country Skrobanek et al.

Transit coun tries usually serve as midway points where traffickers conjure up false documents, inclu ding marriage certificates and visas. Destination countries usually include developed or developing economies with entrenched sex industries, such as Japan, the Unite d States, the Netherlands, Thailand, Germany, Taiwan, South Korea, and India Renzetti e t al.

Origin countries are mainly poor and experience lit tle development, and include much of Africa, Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia. More often than not, countries can serve as more than one type of h ost in the trafficking industry Renzetti et al. Figure 2 highlights the major origin and destination countri es around the world. Figure 2. Latin America and the Caribbean Numerous studies suggest that trafficking to, from, and within the Americas is a major problem Masika , Roughly 14, to 17, women are traffick ed into the United States annually Ribando , 5.

There are m ore people trafficked out of the region than there are coming in. Figure 3 clearly highlights the Latin American and the Caribbean region to be mainly origin in terms of trafficking. More indivi duals are trafficked out of the region than are brought in.

Figure 3. For the Latin American and Caribbean region, a total of 35 source institutions reported the region as o ne of origin, transit, or destination for trafficking victims. The percentages in the figures refer to the tot al amount of 35 source institutions. When governments break down or there is a lack of law and order, people become easily targeted amidst the chaos.

Females in particular, are subject to the machismo attitude prevalent throughout Latin America, which has only aggravated gender inequality. Experts believe that tougher laws in Asi a have led to a wave of trafficking in Latin America.

According to Interpol, 35, women are trafficked out of Colombia each year Farr , 5. In fact, approximately 45, to 50, Colombia women serve as prostitutes abroad; many of whom are trafficked U. Departmen t of State , Trafficking in Persons Report. Given that the nation is heavily involved in the narcotics trade, a large proportion of women are trafficked alongside the da ngerous industry.

Poverty, lack of employment opportuni ties, political instability, and ease of travel has allowed people to become trafficked. Th ese factors create the conditions which put people at risk to traffickers, who view t hem as easy prey. In Guatemala City, Guatemala, the city police clai m 2, children were sexually exploited in nearly brothels Flowers , In Brazil, , girls work as prostitutes, many of them trafficked internally int o the gold mining regions in the Amazon Flowers , ; Inter-American Commission of Wo men In fact, girls as young as nine years old have been reportedly forced into prostitution in the remote mining camps in the Amazon [in Brazil] Flowers 8, In Brazil, 75, women are prostituted to the countries of the Europ ean Union Farr , 5.

Environmental destruction is an avenue through whic h people become trafficked because of the demand for labor in rural areas. Ov erall, the poorest segments of society, usually women and children, face the great est vulnerability throughout Latin America and the Caribbean to being trafficked.

According to the International Organization of Migr ation Study, the primary causes of human trafficking in the Dominican Republic are une mployment and lack of socioeconomic opportunities due to the extreme inco me inequality and poverty the country suffers U. Most of the victims are in troduced by a friend or family member to the potential trafficker, whereby they are then lured into the trap.

These women seek jobs overseas in hopes of more prosperous financial opportunities; however, this is one of the many deceptions involved in the trade. A pr imary feature of this trade in the Dominican Republic is that it is mainly controlled by organized crime networks IOM Apart from the lack of viable economic opportunities within the country, women become victims of human deception because of the desperation in obtaining employment.

Traffickers can target people during p eriods of such vulnerability because they are more easily deceived. The Dominican Repub lic remains an outlet for the highest number of women trafficked out of a country in Latin America. Department of State, June report.

Political instability in co untries like Colombia, threaten the wellbeing of people. Environment destruction in the Am azon region, particularly in Brazil, creates greater vulnerability for people to become trafficked due to the high demand for labor in these rural areas. Poverty, corruption, a nd lack of employment opportunities have all encouraged trafficking due to existing soc ioeconomic conditions in most countries.

North America Despite the recent wave of publicity human traffick ing has been given in the United States, it still remains a growing concern. What follows is a br ief discussion of human trafficking instances in Florida. Florida ranks second in the United States for the greatest number of trafficked victims, largely due to its agricultural enterprise s, manufacturing sector, and robust restaurant and hotel industry Possley ; Ash This example 19 Other problems facing the United States were not state d in the article.

PAGE 56 44 illustrates that despite an excellent legislative f ramework, human trafficking still permeates through borders; greater enforcement mech anisms are needed to curtail this industry. Many migrants come to Florida seeking employment, whether in the agricult ural sector or as a domestic servant, and then become exploited.

Poverty and unemploymen t are factors that create the conditions for people to become trafficked because they are in search of a better life and greater economic opportunities. In South Florida, more than three quarters of people trafficked are women Possley The last several years have seen several crackdown s on prostitution rings, as well as forced labor in Florida.

Very recently, Jo rge W. Melchor of Colombia was charged with four counts of kidnapping and human tr afficking. He lured women from their homes in Guatemala, and falsely promised them lucrative-paying domestic jobs in the United States. They were smuggled across the M exican border on June 30th [], and then taken to Florida via Houston, Texas.

This family trafficked Hispanic women, and then se xually exploited them in brothels throughout Florida and neighboring states Farr 5, These two examples demonstrate how different forms of slavery can occur simultaneously, and how smuggling can lead to traff icking. The women were not only forced into domestic labor, but also bonded as well when told they owed a debt. Although they were under the impression that they w ere smuggled to work in a more PAGE 57 45 lucrative field human deception , they were ultima tely trafficked when exploitation set in.

Approximately 45, to 50, women and girls are trafficked into the United States from around the world for the purpose of sex ual exploitation Parrot and Cummings , Department of State This act assists victims of trafficking and other related violent crimes. Canada recently released its first systematic stud y of human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

The government has taken a proactive stance in responding to the immediate con cerns given the increase in the trafficking of people. On the whole, Canada as we ll as the United States continues to receive many trafficked women from Eastern Europe Malarek , 23 , and serves primarily as a destination country.

Figure 4 clearly illustrates North America serving as a destination region. As evident by the literature, more victims are traffic ked into the United States and Canada from all around the world because of the general af fluent nature of the region. PAGE 58 46 Figure 4. Overall, poverty, unemployment, human deception, la ck of legislative enforcement, and a demand for cheap labor especial ly in strenuous sectors such as agriculture or manufacturing encourage the traffic king of people to North America.

Some of these victims initially meant to smuggle th emselves for the possibility of finding a lucrative paying job, and then find themselves ex ploited upon arrival. On the other hand, others immediately find themselves on a journ ey to exploitation as trafficked victims. Europe In general, it is reported that the majority of vic tims exploited in the sex industry come from Asia, the republics of the former Soviet Union,22 and Eastern Europe, and end up in Europe and North America Miko , 1, 8.

While Western Europe serves mainly as a destination region, it is Central and E astern Europe where the majority of victims are trafficked from Figure 5. The perce ntages in the figure refer to the total amount of 42 source institutions. However, for simplification and continuous cla rity, they will remain as FSU republics in this thesis. PAGE 59 47 Figure 5. Central and Eastern Europe remains a very vulnerabl e region, given its lessaffluent socioeconomic conditions, higher unemploym ent, and greater level of poverty.

Unemployment rose, as d id the poverty level, and many women were forced to look to alternative options fo r income abroad Malarek , 9; Gerdes , Rarely is a young girl or woman kidnapped Gerde s , Although almost a quarter of these women are aware of the prospect of becoming involved in sexual services, few expect outright forced exploitation Gerdes , Overall, 23 In this United Nations figure, a total of 80 source in stitutions reported Western Europe as a region of origin, transit, or destination for trafficking victims.

The percentages in the figure refer to the total amou nt of 80 source institutions. Extensive use of the Internet provides just another venue for traffickers to ta rget potential victims. PAGE 60 48 the collapse of the Berlin Wall and simpler exit proce dures have increased freedom of movement in Eastern Europe, but f actors such as inadequate education, idealized notions of life in th e West, legislation favorable to the commercial sex industry in many countries, and particularly the feminization of poverty have created excellent conditions for trafficking Gerdes , Figure 6 indicates that Central and South Eastern Europe predominately serve as an origin region, although it plays host as a tr ansit and destination region as well.

A large number of women are trafficked between neighb oring countries, and the region overall tends to serve as a transit point for traff ickers. Figure 6. In Central and Eastern Europe, high levels of unemp loyment, poverty, human deception as made evident through trusted family, friends, and significant others , and political instability, encourage the growth of huma n trafficking. In particular, the fall of the former Soviet Union has only exacerbated these conditions, and has led to people migrating abroad in search of viable sources of inc ome.

These factors in turn create 25 In this United Nations figure, a total of 60 source in stitutions reported Central and South Eastern Europe as a region of origin, transit, or destination for tra fficking victims. The percentages in the figure refer to the total amount of 60 source institutions. PAGE 61 49 vulnerability which makes people more susceptible t o the deception of traffickers.

Moldova remains the poorest country in Europe. On ce one of the most affluent countries prior to , Moldova now fights one of the worst human trafficking records, as well as one of the highest unemployment rates in the region.

It serves as an origin country for females trafficked into prostitution, t he most vulnerable coming from domestic abuse households and children leaving institutional care Malarek , 14; Amnesty International , Girls here and in Romania and Bulgaria are kidnapped walking home from school, especially in more rural areas M alarek , An estimated 14, Alban ian women serve as prostitutes in various European countries Farr , 5.

Given i ts close proximity, Italy serves as one of the most popular destinations for Albanian women where the number of trafficked victims more than doubled between and Fa rr , 6. The case of Albania clearly demonstrates the ease in which people are t rafficked into other countries, due to high levels of unemployment, and the existence of i nternational criminal networks.

Women from the FSU republics have been trafficked into prostitution in no less than 50 countries Farr , 9. This region is i ncreasingly vulnerable to the supply of traffickers and remains as one of the largest origi n regions of trafficked women and young girls Figure 7. For example, Russian and Ukrainian women largely supply the sex market i n Israel. About 1, to 2, women are trafficked for prostitution into Israel e ach year Farr , 5.

In fact, Haifa has become a prim e point of entry into Israel for trafficked women. As late as , Israel was repo rted to have around brothels and escort agencies just in Tel Aviv alone Farr , 6 , illuminating the city as a major metropolis for the sex industry. Poverty is a sign ificant factor contributing to the trafficking of women from Moldova, Albania, and the former Soviet Union republics because of the lack of employment opportunities in their countries.

PAGE 63 51 Figure 7. The Balkans is yet another region strongly charact erized by high incident rates of rampant human trafficking and exploitation. Kosovo Macedonia, and Serbia and Montenegro serve as major destination countries wit hin this region; Bosnia ranks number one Mendelson , 9. In this particular regio n, political instability and internal conflict, as well as government corruption, creates a breeding ground for the sexual exploitation and trafficking of people since many b ecame refugees and were in constant movement.

Turkmenistan broke off from the organization as a permanent member on 26 August , and now serves as an associate member Commonwealth of Independent States The percentages in the figure refer to the total amount of 61 source institutions. Many are ultimately destined for exploitation in Western European countries Masika , The trafficking network in this region remains tightly organized, cohesive, and well-run, making it one of the most difficult to permeate.

In general, high levels of unemployment, poverty, pervasive corruption especially alongside international criminal networ ks , widespread human deception, and political instability, encourage the growth of traf ficked people in Europe.

The Middle East 28 and Asia. South and Southeast A sia serve as major origin regions. However, destination count ries thrive across regions as well, both poor and rich. For instance, about , Ba ngladeshi women have been trafficked into neighboring Pakistan over the last ten years, increasing the trafficking rate to to per month Barry , ; Farr 4.

Economic instability is a significant factor for t he trafficking of Middle Eastern people into more stable economies perhaps because t hey are in search of better employment opportunities. In addition, the close p roximity of Pakistan and Bangladesh has contributed to the ease in which people are tra fficked between the two countries.

Trafficking from Pakistan to Bangladesh is a very congested route, as it is popular. Some researchers even push these estimates to 25, to 30, Barry , Usually, Bangladeshi women are deceived through false marriages or lucrative job offers in Pakistan this also occu rs in India Barry , PAGE 66 54 In Nepal, the carpet industry serves as the larges t sector in the country, utilizing thousands of women and girls.

They are not only ex ploited by long hours in this industry, but may also be sexually abused and raped by the managers and even coworkers. Also, thousands of Nepalese girls are repeatedly lured an d then abducted into India for sexual exploitation annually Miko , 7. India-Nepal trafficking has existed for many years, and remains a pressing problem despite national leg islation in both countries. Regardless of some excellent legislation that Tha iland has passed, including the Act for Prostitution Prevention and Suppressio n Act30 which replaced the Act , not much has been done to address the main ca uses that foster human trafficking.

The government, despite acknowledging the seriousne ss of the situation, continues to tolerate the industry due in large part to the exte nsive profits generated Obokata , Furthermore, t he extensive tourism the country receives only exacerbates trafficking and other related sexu ally exploitative industries.

Estimates report that as many as , foreigners travel ea ch year to Thailand to partake in sexual activities Obokata , Enforcement remains a key issue in curtailing the growth of human trafficking. Japan also has a bustling sex industry whose deman d cannot be met at the local level. PAGE 67 55 and Burma, in order to supply this great demand. This country serves as a major destination for women and girls in Southeast Asia, and debt bondage concurrent with trafficking is common in Japan.

Figure 8 indicates that Asia equally serves as an origin and destination region. The large volume of people trafficked out of countr ies in the region, and into other neighboring countries confirms. Figure 8. The percentages in th e figure refer to the total amount of 80 source institutions. PAGE 68 56 Africa With little data available about the ebb and flows of the human trafficking industry in Africa, it is difficult to measure the true exte nt of the situation.

Trafficked people have reportedly increased in recent years, and are belie ved to be in the tens of thousands Miko , 9. Poverty and the low position grant ed to women are major factors giving rise to trafficking, as well as internal armed conf licts plaguing countries such as Sudan and Rwanda Miko , 9. The United Kingdom is also a prime dest ination country for trafficked victims from Nigeria, Liberia, and Sierra Leone Obokata 20 06, An estimated 10, African children are alleged to be living with nonfamily members in the United Kingdom, working in the sex industry, drug trafficking, cred it card fraud, or domestic service industry Obokata , Human trafficking for sexual exploitation is acknowledged in the region, as is forced labor.

In Central and Western Africa, women and children are trafficked for domestic servitude, including planta tion, domestic, and sexual work Masika , Like most developing regions with a few notable e xceptions within each region , Africa serves primarily as an origin region Figure 9. However, it equally serves as a transit and destination region, given the ease in w hich neighboring countries traffic people. PAGE 69 57 Figure 9. They are run well-funded, well-organized, influential org anizations.

They know their business inside out and respond to changes in the market with a speed unmatched by even the most competitive corpora tions. Their expertise and their ability to exploit the mar ket are surpassed only by their disregard for human life. Women are brough t, sold, and hired out like any other product. The bottom line is profi t Malarek , While the number of those criminals 32 In this United Nations figure, a total of 39 source in stitutions reported Africa as a region of origin, tran sit, or destination for trafficking victims.

The percentages in th e figure refer to the total amount of 39 source institutions. In addition, the majority of trafficked victims are never identified or rehabili tated. Many are too afraid to speak out against their captors or avoid the industry altoget her once freed. Also, human trafficking for sexual exploitation i s ambiguous with respect to forced and voluntary prostitution. It is difficult for national governments to ascertain individual trafficking cases if precise definitions do not exist.

Human trafficking intertwines itself so that differentiating between different types of slavery is difficult. A large proportion of women trafficked for prostituti on are also victims of debt bondage Farr , It is their hope that t hrough world governments, civil society, and international organizations, human trafficking can be brought to an end. Although these factors are present worldwide, there also exist factors endemic to each country or region which further aggravates human tr afficking.

In North America, lack of legislative enforcement and a high demand for sex breeds the vulnerability to becoming trafficked. The next chapter will focus on a primarily non-sex ually exploitative slavery, debt bondage. While it is commonly used with trafficked victims, this form of debt bondage emphasizes on forced labor.

This form of slavery involves no t only individuals, but can also involve an entire family, including children. Instances of debt bondage exist virtually everywhere, but this form of slavery is more widesp read in South Asia and South America. In additi on, debt bondage does not contain itself only within the forced labor sector, but is also popular within the trafficking of people for sexual exploitation, such as in prostitu tion. Note that all forms of slavery are granted equal importance by the author; however, so me have greater literature available than others.

This is the primary method for select ing the three types of slavery discussed in the thesis. Numerous socioeconomic, cultural, environmental, an d religious factors encourage the growth of debt bondage around the wor ld. These factors he lp to create the necessary environment for the enslavement of people into debt bondage, especially in India, PAGE 73 61 Pakistan, and Brazil.

Other forms of slavery not d iscussed within these three consecutive chapters Chapters 3, 4, and 5 are gro uped together within Chapter 6. Due to time constraints, an elaboration on every form o f slavery is not possible. This chapter examines debt bondage and its different forms in th ree countries: India, Pakistan, and Brazil. Essentially, an individual or family pledges themselves against a debt, or the y inherit a debt from their family Bales , 9; Bales , Enslavement sets in when complete control of the person occurs van den Anker , The Debt Bondage Population In , the United Nations estimated that there ar e 21 million people in bonded labor worldwide; most of them indigenous peoples.

However, according to the International Labor Organization ILO report on fo rced labor, there are discrepancies because not all forms of debt lead to bondage Mier s , Ch. Indebtedness is the primary distinguishable feature of debt bond age in comparison to other forms of 34 In the southern region of the United States, Latin A merica, and the Philippines, debt bondage is known as peonage; in South Asia, it is known as bonded labor Mi ers , Ch.

PAGE 74 62 forced labor van den Anker , As previously mentioned, debt bondage along with other forms of slavery, is not mutually exclusive Bales , Apart from debt bondag e in the forced labor sector, it also occurs among those trafficked into prostitution or other sexually exploitative industries, and migrant workers van den Anker , In South Asia, it is prevalent in agriculture, rural industry, servic e sectors, and in production of materials for industry or construction e.

Overall, there is no general consensus on the avera ge size of this labor market in the South Asian region van den Anker , In S outh America, it prevails with those working within the environmental sector. What foll ows is a discussion of different forms of debt bondage in India, Pakistan, and Brazil.

Th ese three countries are of particular interest due to the high volume of bonded labor tha t exists in both India and Pakistan, as well as the way debt bondage takes hold in an uncon ventional industry in Brazil that is not very widespread. These cases also demonstrate that poverty, high levels of unemployment, environmental destruction and the dem and for labor, lack of education, human deception, and religious discrimination all p lay a significant role in leading people to become enslaved despite cultural, political, and socioeconomic differences within each country.

Debt bondage in agriculture was first reported in the Indian state of Bihar in In India, debt bondage is interchangeable with the terms kaimaiya, kamiyah, haruwahi, kandh in the Bihar province , haliah in the Orissa province , harwashee or kamiya in the Madhya Pradesh province , and hali in uttar in the Pradesh and Maharastra provinces van den Anker , It is no surprise the country has nume rous meanings for this form of slavery, given its pervasiveness, as well as the different l anguages spoken in the region.

Poverty and a lack of education greatly contribute to the ensla vement of people into debt bondage, as other occupations are not feasible. They work f or creditors, who are usually landlords Miers , Ch. If the debtor is not abl e to carry out his tasks, his wife and children might also be forced to work. Essentially they become bonded as well, as might the heirs of the family.

Sometimes generatio ns remain bonded due to the inability to escape enslavement and the impoverished conditio ns in which they cannot seem to escape van den Anker , Similar situations occur in Pakistan, whe re parents bond their children in return for loans. Labor in the brick kilns presents just another example of how individuals and families are bonded Miers , Ch. Chil dren are particularly vulnerable to this because they are young, defenseless, and easil y targeted.

Approximately fifteen years ago, Pakistan outlawed debt bondage; yet this type of slavery continues to exist in the country Miers , Ch. Similar to the PAGE 76 64 process in neighboring India and elsewhere in the w orld, laborers become enslaved as a consequence of a pledged loan of some sort or thoug h inheritance. Bonded labor mainly exists in the agricultural sector, as well a s in the brick kilns, domestic service, and the carpet and weaving industries van den Anker 20 04, Even the mining and fishing industries report the presence of bonded la borers.

In effect then, religious factors seem to play a bigger role in Pakistan in the area of debt bondage Religious discrimination could possibly account for the large number of religious minorities enslaved. According to recent data, debt bondage has experienced a decline in the country, perhaps due to the decrease in the number of landless tenants and of s hare-cropping between landlords and laborers van den Anker , The brick kiln industry in Pakistan involves a larg e number of bonded slaves.

These individuals or families work against a debt, one that often lingers on to future generations. Moreover, when the father dies, the wi fe and children inherit the debt Bales , There are approximately 7, kilns in Pakistan. Usually a family, inclu ding children, work together in the industry, establishing a total of about , sla ves Bales , Children in particular play an integral role in this bonded lab or.

They help the family mix mud for the bricks, haul the bricks from pits to kilns, or stac k them Bales , Bricks are stacked in precise and neat rows, one on top of the other, in order to form an oven, where temperatures reach well over 15 00 degrees. Brick kilns pose PAGE 77 65 extreme dangers to the workers, not only because of the high temperatures, but also for the susceptibility of falling inside one.

When t his happens a person can fall through. Within seconds, they become incinerated. Photo: Children are seen stacking and aligning bricks. Anti-Slavery International. Despite the extreme dangers these people are put in brick making is a form of slavery that it is not very lucrative.

Essentially the bricks themselves cost little to nothing to make, a s the earth itself is used to create them. However, the fuel that burns in these kilns to make the bricks is the expensive part of the process Bales , This small profit is what drives the highest volume of p eople to become enslaved in bonded labor. Unfortunately, since many of th ese factors are deteriorating, the outlook for these enslaved brick makers, as well as those in other forms of bonded labor is not optimistic.

Throughout the s, attention to bonded labor was brought to light, particularly in South America. Disruption to the natural environment creates certain such fac tors which help slavery grow. In this country, debt bondage is considered to be a tempora ry form of slavery because of the limited destruction and availability of certain env ironmental structures Bales , In other words, because forests, jungles, and rainf orests can only be destroyed once, debt bondage cannot continue if these structures ar e not in place.

In Brazil, bonded labor has established itself due to extreme poverty, high unemployment, human deception, environmental destru ction, and the demand for labor PAGE 79 67 in rural areas Miers , Ch. Today, th e country suffers from the greatest economic disparity than any other place on Earth B ales , Nearly 50, out of the million people own almost everything esp ecially land; at the other end of the spectrum lie 4 million people whose lives revolve a round the favelas slums scattered throughout the major cities of the country.

They s hare a mere three percent of the land, yet are the ones who become enslaved to work them Bales , The wood was piled into mounds and simply burned into charcoal. Today, the destruction of the forests has returned to the state and other Amazonian regions o f Brazil including Minas Gerais and Bahia , this time yielding profits Bales , Despite the official abolishment of the importation of slaves into the country in as well as the international slave trade , internal slavery has never diminished Bale s , In fact, Brazil became the last country in the Western Hemisphere to offic ially abolish slavery in Bales , Due to the great demand for labor in the rural ar eas, contractors known in Brazil as gatos drive into urban centers, such as Minas Gerais, a nd look for prospective workers, with promises of a lucrative career and ad vance pay Bales , Human deception, lack of employment opportunities a nd the demand for labor has thus encouraged Brazilians to becoming enslaved.

In add ition, their main sources of identity and freedom in the country [are] taken away: their state identity card and their labor card Bales , Both are vital to Brazilia n life, as the former card proves citizenship and the latter serves as a key document for legal employment. Without either PAGE 80 68 one, it is difficult for these people to reclaim th eir lives once they became slaves.

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Human deception is very widespread, and is a common tactic used to pro cure individuals worldwide. This deception will be detailed within the discussion of where human trafficking exists. A good number of trafficked victims co mplement the drug and weapons industry, as well as organized criminal networks.

According to the Kevin Bales, there are eight stag es that define the human trafficking process Bales , : 1. The Context of Vulnerability 2. Recruitment 3. Removal 4. Transportation 5. Establishment of Control 6.

Arrival 7. Exploitation 8. Resolution Stage 1 is the juncture at which traffickers caref ully choose their victims. Poverty and poor socioeconomic conditions are key factors i n determining the victims. While the most vulnerable populations, such as the elderly, d isabled, very poor, or sick seem likely candidates given their conditions, they are the one s most often avoided Bales , It is their frail condition that makes them less valuable to the industry.

For this, the young, strong, and healthy are considered prime tar gets however, not necessarily from the poorest regions. Many young women seek financial support for college, other schooling, or additional income to help support family and children. For this reason, level of education does not seem to have a significant PAGE 44 32 correlation to becoming trafficked.

Most are false ly deceived, and thereby become trafficked. However, children who have not yet att ained a high school-level of education are vulnerable to the deceptions and tricks employe d by the large span and types of traffickers.

Apart from their age and general navet, ch ildren without an adequate education in terms of literacy face this vulnerability as w ell. Stage 2 or recruitment, varies from victim to vict im, but generally involves certain characteristics. To do this, they lure them with attractive goods.

In addition, older women and people in general are viewed as more trust-worthy and respect able. In Eastern Europe, false and deceptive unemployment schemes draws in vulnerable people. Again, human deception plays a major role in trafficking human beings, esp ecially when a greater level of trust is built or already in existence, such as between frie nds, family, or significant others.

Today, Central and Eastern Europe loom in the traf ficking industry, with disillusioned women and young girls looking for bet ter socioeconomic opportunities and stability. After the fall of the Soviet Union in t he early s, political instability as a government disbanded threatened the well-being of people, by allowing traffickers to 12 While many countries have some sort of mandatory educ ational requirements, they are not rigorously enforced.

While education fares w ell in many European countries, major Asian countries e. Most of the developed world focused on establishing these developing countries into trading partners, than investing in education. Less than half that amount could be used to provide a primary education to every child on Earth that does not have one Altink 19 95, What is distressing is that the top industrial nations, United States, Russia, France, Britain, and Chi na, sell nearly 90 percent of all weapons to lessdeveloped countries Altink , PAGE 45 33 prey on their vulnerabilities.

As unemployment ros e, people migrated out of the former Soviet Union, increasing their susceptibility to be come targets of traffickers in the midst of traveling through unfamiliar countries. In shou ld be noted that country differences will not be distinguished in the statistical analysis.

Stage 4 or the transportation phase, involves the trafficking of the victims, and upon arrival to their destination, total exploitati on. Given that large numbers of people are trafficked through many countries, the human tr afficking process is quite organized.

Without their passports, 13 The units generally imply what services are taken care of For additional details as to what each subunit specifically does, please refer to Bales , PAGE 46 34 travel or identity cards, many have no way of leavi ng their situation safely.

Victims are introduced to the other victims at this point, and usually realize their enslavement and deception. Brainwashing and psychological and mental trauma fu rther disorient the victims. Stage 6 or arrival, sees the complete control over the victim being carried out and the exploitation phase begins. Deception becomes c lear at this point to the victim once at their destination.

After reaching their destina tion, victims enter complete exploitation. After time, with repeated abuse and violence, the victims begin to accustom themsel ves to this treatment, both mentally and physically Bales , In nearly every case of human trafficking for sexual exploita tion, more than one type of crime is involved, including fraud, kidnap, assault, rape, a nd sometimes even murder Bales , Table 1 further highlights the crimes a ssociated with the trafficking process, particularly the exploitative portion.

Human traff icking includes a multitude of crimes, which many countries do not even recognize. Those that unfortunately become pregnant are sometimes sent fo r an abortion. In many countries, this procedure is done illegally, such as in Thaila nd, further increasing complications and risks to the life of the mother and baby Bales 9, In some rare circumstances, when a woman gives birth, the baby is taken and sold by th e owner of the brothel; the woman then returns to work almost immediately.

The final state, while involving physical freedom, may not help the majority of victims to recuperate, rehabilitate, and assimilate back into society. Rehabilitation of the victim is an area that needs further refinement and attention in order to prevent such people from becoming victims of trafficking again, or from expl oiting themselves. Overall, people are trafficked in much the same wa y a new product is manufactured -put on the assembly line, shipped o ut throughout various transnational or sometimes domestic networks and points of ship ment, and then used.

Traffickers have extensive Table 1. Italics indicate that the offenses are perpetrated against the individual victim. This chain assembly line is what helps to distribute the traff icked victims in an organized and orderly manner to their chosen destinations. It is no wonder then that most organized 14 Apart from the sexual exploitation, women and young ch ildren can also be involved in labor intensive work, domestic servitude, and the like apart from their main duty as a sex slave.

PAGE 49 37 crime groups, such as the Italian and Russian mafia the Japanese yakuza, and Chinese triads, are all heavily involved in this highly pro fitable trade Altink , 5. Corruption heavily encourages this trade because of the strong connections that are made between powerful officials and traffickers. Trafficking may occur internally within a country or internationally across count ries Barry , ; Renzetti et al.

Certain countries ser ve primarily as source or origin countries,15 those where individuals are trafficked out of; oth ers serve as destination countries, where individuals are trafficked to; and finally, some as transit countries, where trafficked individuals are en route to their destination country via that particular country Skrobanek et al.

Transit coun tries usually serve as midway points where traffickers conjure up false documents, inclu ding marriage certificates and visas. Destination countries usually include developed or developing economies with entrenched sex industries, such as Japan, the Unite d States, the Netherlands, Thailand, Germany, Taiwan, South Korea, and India Renzetti e t al. Origin countries are mainly poor and experience lit tle development, and include much of Africa, Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia.

More often than not, countries can serve as more than one type of h ost in the trafficking industry Renzetti et al. Figure 2 highlights the major origin and destination countri es around the world. Figure 2. Latin America and the Caribbean Numerous studies suggest that trafficking to, from, and within the Americas is a major problem Masika , Roughly 14, to 17, women are traffick ed into the United States annually Ribando , 5.

There are m ore people trafficked out of the region than there are coming in. Figure 3 clearly highlights the Latin American and the Caribbean region to be mainly origin in terms of trafficking. More indivi duals are trafficked out of the region than are brought in. Figure 3. For the Latin American and Caribbean region, a total of 35 source institutions reported the region as o ne of origin, transit, or destination for trafficking victims.

The percentages in the figures refer to the tot al amount of 35 source institutions. When governments break down or there is a lack of law and order, people become easily targeted amidst the chaos. Females in particular, are subject to the machismo attitude prevalent throughout Latin America, which has only aggravated gender inequality. Experts believe that tougher laws in Asi a have led to a wave of trafficking in Latin America.

According to Interpol, 35, women are trafficked out of Colombia each year Farr , 5. In fact, approximately 45, to 50, Colombia women serve as prostitutes abroad; many of whom are trafficked U. Departmen t of State , Trafficking in Persons Report. Given that the nation is heavily involved in the narcotics trade, a large proportion of women are trafficked alongside the da ngerous industry. Poverty, lack of employment opportuni ties, political instability, and ease of travel has allowed people to become trafficked.

Th ese factors create the conditions which put people at risk to traffickers, who view t hem as easy prey. In Guatemala City, Guatemala, the city police clai m 2, children were sexually exploited in nearly brothels Flowers , In Brazil, , girls work as prostitutes, many of them trafficked internally int o the gold mining regions in the Amazon Flowers , ; Inter-American Commission of Wo men In fact, girls as young as nine years old have been reportedly forced into prostitution in the remote mining camps in the Amazon [in Brazil] Flowers 8, In Brazil, 75, women are prostituted to the countries of the Europ ean Union Farr , 5.

Environmental destruction is an avenue through whic h people become trafficked because of the demand for labor in rural areas. Ov erall, the poorest segments of society, usually women and children, face the great est vulnerability throughout Latin America and the Caribbean to being trafficked. According to the International Organization of Migr ation Study, the primary causes of human trafficking in the Dominican Republic are une mployment and lack of socioeconomic opportunities due to the extreme inco me inequality and poverty the country suffers U.

Most of the victims are in troduced by a friend or family member to the potential trafficker, whereby they are then lured into the trap. These women seek jobs overseas in hopes of more prosperous financial opportunities; however, this is one of the many deceptions involved in the trade. A pr imary feature of this trade in the Dominican Republic is that it is mainly controlled by organized crime networks IOM Apart from the lack of viable economic opportunities within the country, women become victims of human deception because of the desperation in obtaining employment.

Traffickers can target people during p eriods of such vulnerability because they are more easily deceived. The Dominican Repub lic remains an outlet for the highest number of women trafficked out of a country in Latin America. Department of State, June report. Political instability in co untries like Colombia, threaten the wellbeing of people.

Environment destruction in the Am azon region, particularly in Brazil, creates greater vulnerability for people to become trafficked due to the high demand for labor in these rural areas. Poverty, corruption, a nd lack of employment opportunities have all encouraged trafficking due to existing soc ioeconomic conditions in most countries.

North America Despite the recent wave of publicity human traffick ing has been given in the United States, it still remains a growing concern. What follows is a br ief discussion of human trafficking instances in Florida. Florida ranks second in the United States for the greatest number of trafficked victims, largely due to its agricultural enterprise s, manufacturing sector, and robust restaurant and hotel industry Possley ; Ash This example 19 Other problems facing the United States were not state d in the article.

PAGE 56 44 illustrates that despite an excellent legislative f ramework, human trafficking still permeates through borders; greater enforcement mech anisms are needed to curtail this industry. Many migrants come to Florida seeking employment, whether in the agricult ural sector or as a domestic servant, and then become exploited. Poverty and unemploymen t are factors that create the conditions for people to become trafficked because they are in search of a better life and greater economic opportunities.

In South Florida, more than three quarters of people trafficked are women Possley The last several years have seen several crackdown s on prostitution rings, as well as forced labor in Florida. Very recently, Jo rge W. Melchor of Colombia was charged with four counts of kidnapping and human tr afficking. He lured women from their homes in Guatemala, and falsely promised them lucrative-paying domestic jobs in the United States.

They were smuggled across the M exican border on June 30th [], and then taken to Florida via Houston, Texas. This family trafficked Hispanic women, and then se xually exploited them in brothels throughout Florida and neighboring states Farr 5, These two examples demonstrate how different forms of slavery can occur simultaneously, and how smuggling can lead to traff icking.

The women were not only forced into domestic labor, but also bonded as well when told they owed a debt. Although they were under the impression that they w ere smuggled to work in a more PAGE 57 45 lucrative field human deception , they were ultima tely trafficked when exploitation set in.

Approximately 45, to 50, women and girls are trafficked into the United States from around the world for the purpose of sex ual exploitation Parrot and Cummings , Department of State This act assists victims of trafficking and other related violent crimes. Canada recently released its first systematic stud y of human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

The government has taken a proactive stance in responding to the immediate con cerns given the increase in the trafficking of people. On the whole, Canada as we ll as the United States continues to receive many trafficked women from Eastern Europe Malarek , 23 , and serves primarily as a destination country.

Figure 4 clearly illustrates North America serving as a destination region. As evident by the literature, more victims are traffic ked into the United States and Canada from all around the world because of the general af fluent nature of the region. PAGE 58 46 Figure 4. Overall, poverty, unemployment, human deception, la ck of legislative enforcement, and a demand for cheap labor especial ly in strenuous sectors such as agriculture or manufacturing encourage the traffic king of people to North America.

Some of these victims initially meant to smuggle th emselves for the possibility of finding a lucrative paying job, and then find themselves ex ploited upon arrival. On the other hand, others immediately find themselves on a journ ey to exploitation as trafficked victims. Europe In general, it is reported that the majority of vic tims exploited in the sex industry come from Asia, the republics of the former Soviet Union,22 and Eastern Europe, and end up in Europe and North America Miko , 1, 8.

While Western Europe serves mainly as a destination region, it is Central and E astern Europe where the majority of victims are trafficked from Figure 5. The perce ntages in the figure refer to the total amount of 42 source institutions. However, for simplification and continuous cla rity, they will remain as FSU republics in this thesis. PAGE 59 47 Figure 5. Central and Eastern Europe remains a very vulnerabl e region, given its lessaffluent socioeconomic conditions, higher unemploym ent, and greater level of poverty.

Unemployment rose, as d id the poverty level, and many women were forced to look to alternative options fo r income abroad Malarek , 9; Gerdes , Rarely is a young girl or woman kidnapped Gerde s , Although almost a quarter of these women are aware of the prospect of becoming involved in sexual services, few expect outright forced exploitation Gerdes , Overall, 23 In this United Nations figure, a total of 80 source in stitutions reported Western Europe as a region of origin, transit, or destination for trafficking victims.

The percentages in the figure refer to the total amou nt of 80 source institutions. Extensive use of the Internet provides just another venue for traffickers to ta rget potential victims. PAGE 60 48 the collapse of the Berlin Wall and simpler exit proce dures have increased freedom of movement in Eastern Europe, but f actors such as inadequate education, idealized notions of life in th e West, legislation favorable to the commercial sex industry in many countries, and particularly the feminization of poverty have created excellent conditions for trafficking Gerdes , Figure 6 indicates that Central and South Eastern Europe predominately serve as an origin region, although it plays host as a tr ansit and destination region as well.

A large number of women are trafficked between neighb oring countries, and the region overall tends to serve as a transit point for traff ickers. Figure 6. In Central and Eastern Europe, high levels of unemp loyment, poverty, human deception as made evident through trusted family, friends, and significant others , and political instability, encourage the growth of huma n trafficking.

In particular, the fall of the former Soviet Union has only exacerbated these conditions, and has led to people migrating abroad in search of viable sources of inc ome. These factors in turn create 25 In this United Nations figure, a total of 60 source in stitutions reported Central and South Eastern Europe as a region of origin, transit, or destination for tra fficking victims. The percentages in the figure refer to the total amount of 60 source institutions.

PAGE 61 49 vulnerability which makes people more susceptible t o the deception of traffickers. Moldova remains the poorest country in Europe. On ce one of the most affluent countries prior to , Moldova now fights one of the worst human trafficking records, as well as one of the highest unemployment rates in the region.

It serves as an origin country for females trafficked into prostitution, t he most vulnerable coming from domestic abuse households and children leaving institutional care Malarek , 14; Amnesty International , Girls here and in Romania and Bulgaria are kidnapped walking home from school, especially in more rural areas M alarek , An estimated 14, Alban ian women serve as prostitutes in various European countries Farr , 5.

Given i ts close proximity, Italy serves as one of the most popular destinations for Albanian women where the number of trafficked victims more than doubled between and Fa rr , 6. The case of Albania clearly demonstrates the ease in which people are t rafficked into other countries, due to high levels of unemployment, and the existence of i nternational criminal networks.

Women from the FSU republics have been trafficked into prostitution in no less than 50 countries Farr , 9. This region is i ncreasingly vulnerable to the supply of traffickers and remains as one of the largest origi n regions of trafficked women and young girls Figure 7. For example, Russian and Ukrainian women largely supply the sex market i n Israel. About 1, to 2, women are trafficked for prostitution into Israel e ach year Farr , 5.

In fact, Haifa has become a prim e point of entry into Israel for trafficked women. As late as , Israel was repo rted to have around brothels and escort agencies just in Tel Aviv alone Farr , 6 , illuminating the city as a major metropolis for the sex industry. Poverty is a sign ificant factor contributing to the trafficking of women from Moldova, Albania, and the former Soviet Union republics because of the lack of employment opportunities in their countries.

PAGE 63 51 Figure 7. The Balkans is yet another region strongly charact erized by high incident rates of rampant human trafficking and exploitation. Kosovo Macedonia, and Serbia and Montenegro serve as major destination countries wit hin this region; Bosnia ranks number one Mendelson , 9. In this particular regio n, political instability and internal conflict, as well as government corruption, creates a breeding ground for the sexual exploitation and trafficking of people since many b ecame refugees and were in constant movement.

Turkmenistan broke off from the organization as a permanent member on 26 August , and now serves as an associate member Commonwealth of Independent States The percentages in the figure refer to the total amount of 61 source institutions. Many are ultimately destined for exploitation in Western European countries Masika , The trafficking network in this region remains tightly organized, cohesive, and well-run, making it one of the most difficult to permeate.

In general, high levels of unemployment, poverty, pervasive corruption especially alongside international criminal networ ks , widespread human deception, and political instability, encourage the growth of traf ficked people in Europe. The Middle East 28 and Asia.

South and Southeast A sia serve as major origin regions. However, destination count ries thrive across regions as well, both poor and rich. For instance, about , Ba ngladeshi women have been trafficked into neighboring Pakistan over the last ten years, increasing the trafficking rate to to per month Barry , ; Farr 4. Economic instability is a significant factor for t he trafficking of Middle Eastern people into more stable economies perhaps because t hey are in search of better employment opportunities.

In addition, the close p roximity of Pakistan and Bangladesh has contributed to the ease in which people are tra fficked between the two countries. Trafficking from Pakistan to Bangladesh is a very congested route, as it is popular. Some researchers even push these estimates to 25, to 30, Barry , Usually, Bangladeshi women are deceived through false marriages or lucrative job offers in Pakistan this also occu rs in India Barry , PAGE 66 54 In Nepal, the carpet industry serves as the larges t sector in the country, utilizing thousands of women and girls.

They are not only ex ploited by long hours in this industry, but may also be sexually abused and raped by the managers and even coworkers. Also, thousands of Nepalese girls are repeatedly lured an d then abducted into India for sexual exploitation annually Miko , 7. India-Nepal trafficking has existed for many years, and remains a pressing problem despite national leg islation in both countries. Regardless of some excellent legislation that Tha iland has passed, including the Act for Prostitution Prevention and Suppressio n Act30 which replaced the Act , not much has been done to address the main ca uses that foster human trafficking.

The government, despite acknowledging the seriousne ss of the situation, continues to tolerate the industry due in large part to the exte nsive profits generated Obokata , Furthermore, t he extensive tourism the country receives only exacerbates trafficking and other related sexu ally exploitative industries.

Estimates report that as many as , foreigners travel ea ch year to Thailand to partake in sexual activities Obokata , Enforcement remains a key issue in curtailing the growth of human trafficking. Japan also has a bustling sex industry whose deman d cannot be met at the local level. PAGE 67 55 and Burma, in order to supply this great demand.

This country serves as a major destination for women and girls in Southeast Asia, and debt bondage concurrent with trafficking is common in Japan. Figure 8 indicates that Asia equally serves as an origin and destination region. The large volume of people trafficked out of countr ies in the region, and into other neighboring countries confirms.

Figure 8. The percentages in th e figure refer to the total amount of 80 source institutions. PAGE 68 56 Africa With little data available about the ebb and flows of the human trafficking industry in Africa, it is difficult to measure the true exte nt of the situation.

Trafficked people have reportedly increased in recent years, and are belie ved to be in the tens of thousands Miko , 9. Poverty and the low position grant ed to women are major factors giving rise to trafficking, as well as internal armed conf licts plaguing countries such as Sudan and Rwanda Miko , 9. The United Kingdom is also a prime dest ination country for trafficked victims from Nigeria, Liberia, and Sierra Leone Obokata 20 06, An estimated 10, African children are alleged to be living with nonfamily members in the United Kingdom, working in the sex industry, drug trafficking, cred it card fraud, or domestic service industry Obokata , Human trafficking for sexual exploitation is acknowledged in the region, as is forced labor.

In Central and Western Africa, women and children are trafficked for domestic servitude, including planta tion, domestic, and sexual work Masika , Like most developing regions with a few notable e xceptions within each region , Africa serves primarily as an origin region Figure 9. However, it equally serves as a transit and destination region, given the ease in w hich neighboring countries traffic people.

PAGE 69 57 Figure 9. They are run well-funded, well-organized, influential org anizations. They know their business inside out and respond to changes in the market with a speed unmatched by even the most competitive corpora tions. Their expertise and their ability to exploit the mar ket are surpassed only by their disregard for human life. Women are brough t, sold, and hired out like any other product.

The bottom line is profi t Malarek , While the number of those criminals 32 In this United Nations figure, a total of 39 source in stitutions reported Africa as a region of origin, tran sit, or destination for trafficking victims. The percentages in th e figure refer to the total amount of 39 source institutions. In addition, the majority of trafficked victims are never identified or rehabili tated. Many are too afraid to speak out against their captors or avoid the industry altoget her once freed.

Also, human trafficking for sexual exploitation i s ambiguous with respect to forced and voluntary prostitution. It is difficult for national governments to ascertain individual trafficking cases if precise definitions do not exist. Human trafficking intertwines itself so that differentiating between different types of slavery is difficult. A large proportion of women trafficked for prostituti on are also victims of debt bondage Farr , It is their hope that t hrough world governments, civil society, and international organizations, human trafficking can be brought to an end.

Although these factors are present worldwide, there also exist factors endemic to each country or region which further aggravates human tr afficking. In North America, lack of legislative enforcement and a high demand for sex breeds the vulnerability to becoming trafficked. The next chapter will focus on a primarily non-sex ually exploitative slavery, debt bondage.

While it is commonly used with trafficked victims, this form of debt bondage emphasizes on forced labor. This form of slavery involves no t only individuals, but can also involve an entire family, including children. Instances of debt bondage exist virtually everywhere, but this form of slavery is more widesp read in South Asia and South America. In additi on, debt bondage does not contain itself only within the forced labor sector, but is also popular within the trafficking of people for sexual exploitation, such as in prostitu tion.

Note that all forms of slavery are granted equal importance by the author; however, so me have greater literature available than others. This is the primary method for select ing the three types of slavery discussed in the thesis. Numerous socioeconomic, cultural, environmental, an d religious factors encourage the growth of debt bondage around the wor ld.

These factors he lp to create the necessary environment for the enslavement of people into debt bondage, especially in India, PAGE 73 61 Pakistan, and Brazil. Other forms of slavery not d iscussed within these three consecutive chapters Chapters 3, 4, and 5 are gro uped together within Chapter 6.

Due to time constraints, an elaboration on every form o f slavery is not possible. This chapter examines debt bondage and its different forms in th ree countries: India, Pakistan, and Brazil. Essentially, an individual or family pledges themselves against a debt, or the y inherit a debt from their family Bales , 9; Bales , Enslavement sets in when complete control of the person occurs van den Anker , The Debt Bondage Population In , the United Nations estimated that there ar e 21 million people in bonded labor worldwide; most of them indigenous peoples.

However, according to the International Labor Organization ILO report on fo rced labor, there are discrepancies because not all forms of debt lead to bondage Mier s , Ch. Indebtedness is the primary distinguishable feature of debt bond age in comparison to other forms of 34 In the southern region of the United States, Latin A merica, and the Philippines, debt bondage is known as peonage; in South Asia, it is known as bonded labor Mi ers , Ch.

PAGE 74 62 forced labor van den Anker , As previously mentioned, debt bondage along with other forms of slavery, is not mutually exclusive Bales , Apart from debt bondag e in the forced labor sector, it also occurs among those trafficked into prostitution or other sexually exploitative industries, and migrant workers van den Anker , In South Asia, it is prevalent in agriculture, rural industry, servic e sectors, and in production of materials for industry or construction e.

Overall, there is no general consensus on the avera ge size of this labor market in the South Asian region van den Anker , In S outh America, it prevails with those working within the environmental sector. What foll ows is a discussion of different forms of debt bondage in India, Pakistan, and Brazil. Th ese three countries are of particular interest due to the high volume of bonded labor tha t exists in both India and Pakistan, as well as the way debt bondage takes hold in an uncon ventional industry in Brazil that is not very widespread.

These cases also demonstrate that poverty, high levels of unemployment, environmental destruction and the dem and for labor, lack of education, human deception, and religious discrimination all p lay a significant role in leading people to become enslaved despite cultural, political, and socioeconomic differences within each country. Debt bondage in agriculture was first reported in the Indian state of Bihar in In India, debt bondage is interchangeable with the terms kaimaiya, kamiyah, haruwahi, kandh in the Bihar province , haliah in the Orissa province , harwashee or kamiya in the Madhya Pradesh province , and hali in uttar in the Pradesh and Maharastra provinces van den Anker , It is no surprise the country has nume rous meanings for this form of slavery, given its pervasiveness, as well as the different l anguages spoken in the region.

Poverty and a lack of education greatly contribute to the ensla vement of people into debt bondage, as other occupations are not feasible. They work f or creditors, who are usually landlords Miers , Ch. If the debtor is not abl e to carry out his tasks, his wife and children might also be forced to work. Essentially they become bonded as well, as might the heirs of the family. Sometimes generatio ns remain bonded due to the inability to escape enslavement and the impoverished conditio ns in which they cannot seem to escape van den Anker , Similar situations occur in Pakistan, whe re parents bond their children in return for loans.

Labor in the brick kilns presents just another example of how individuals and families are bonded Miers , Ch. Chil dren are particularly vulnerable to this because they are young, defenseless, and easil y targeted.

Approximately fifteen years ago, Pakistan outlawed debt bondage; yet this type of slavery continues to exist in the country Miers , Ch. Similar to the PAGE 76 64 process in neighboring India and elsewhere in the w orld, laborers become enslaved as a consequence of a pledged loan of some sort or thoug h inheritance. Bonded labor mainly exists in the agricultural sector, as well a s in the brick kilns, domestic service, and the carpet and weaving industries van den Anker 20 04, Even the mining and fishing industries report the presence of bonded la borers.

In effect then, religious factors seem to play a bigger role in Pakistan in the area of debt bondage Religious discrimination could possibly account for the large number of religious minorities enslaved. According to recent data, debt bondage has experienced a decline in the country, perhaps due to the decrease in the number of landless tenants and of s hare-cropping between landlords and laborers van den Anker , The brick kiln industry in Pakistan involves a larg e number of bonded slaves.

These individuals or families work against a debt, one that often lingers on to future generations. Moreover, when the father dies, the wi fe and children inherit the debt Bales , There are approximately 7, kilns in Pakistan. Usually a family, inclu ding children, work together in the industry, establishing a total of about , sla ves Bales , Children in particular play an integral role in this bonded lab or. They help the family mix mud for the bricks, haul the bricks from pits to kilns, or stac k them Bales , Bricks are stacked in precise and neat rows, one on top of the other, in order to form an oven, where temperatures reach well over 15 00 degrees.

Brick kilns pose PAGE 77 65 extreme dangers to the workers, not only because of the high temperatures, but also for the susceptibility of falling inside one. When t his happens a person can fall through. Within seconds, they become incinerated. Photo: Children are seen stacking and aligning bricks. Anti-Slavery International.

Despite the extreme dangers these people are put in brick making is a form of slavery that it is not very lucrative. Essentially the bricks themselves cost little to nothing to make, a s the earth itself is used to create them. However, the fuel that burns in these kilns to make the bricks is the expensive part of the process Bales , This small profit is what drives the highest volume of p eople to become enslaved in bonded labor. Unfortunately, since many of th ese factors are deteriorating, the outlook for these enslaved brick makers, as well as those in other forms of bonded labor is not optimistic.

Throughout the s, attention to bonded labor was brought to light, particularly in South America. Disruption to the natural environment creates certain such fac tors which help slavery grow. In this country, debt bondage is considered to be a tempora ry form of slavery because of the limited destruction and availability of certain env ironmental structures Bales , In other words, because forests, jungles, and rainf orests can only be destroyed once, debt bondage cannot continue if these structures ar e not in place.

In Brazil, bonded labor has established itself due to extreme poverty, high unemployment, human deception, environmental destru ction, and the demand for labor PAGE 79 67 in rural areas Miers , Ch. Today, th e country suffers from the greatest economic disparity than any other place on Earth B ales , Nearly 50, out of the million people own almost everything esp ecially land; at the other end of the spectrum lie 4 million people whose lives revolve a round the favelas slums scattered throughout the major cities of the country.

They s hare a mere three percent of the land, yet are the ones who become enslaved to work them Bales , The wood was piled into mounds and simply burned into charcoal. Today, the destruction of the forests has returned to the state and other Amazonian regions o f Brazil including Minas Gerais and Bahia , this time yielding profits Bales , Despite the official abolishment of the importation of slaves into the country in as well as the international slave trade , internal slavery has never diminished Bale s , In fact, Brazil became the last country in the Western Hemisphere to offic ially abolish slavery in Bales , Due to the great demand for labor in the rural ar eas, contractors known in Brazil as gatos drive into urban centers, such as Minas Gerais, a nd look for prospective workers, with promises of a lucrative career and ad vance pay Bales , Human deception, lack of employment opportunities a nd the demand for labor has thus encouraged Brazilians to becoming enslaved.

In add ition, their main sources of identity and freedom in the country [are] taken away: their state identity card and their labor card Bales , Both are vital to Brazilia n life, as the former card proves citizenship and the latter serves as a key document for legal employment. Without either PAGE 80 68 one, it is difficult for these people to reclaim th eir lives once they became slaves.

Thus begins the cycle of enslavement known as debt bondage. Essentially, these charcoal camps called batterias35 are in desolate areas where the slaves are at the mercy and will of the gatos Like those brutalized in the sexual exploitation industry, these workers become completely controlled, and vio lence is often employed. Those enslaved at the camps in Mato Gross du Sol are reported to have only been held in bonded labor from three mont hs to two years, but not much longer than that Bales , There are several reasons for the short-term ensla vement of charcoal workers.

First, the charcoal camps are only in existence for about two to three years in one location; thereafter, the forest and surrounding ar ea becomes depleted. Second, the workers themselves also become fatigued and even si ck from working in the hot temperatures of the charcoal ovens.

Ironically, they linger around the surrounding areas of Mato Grosso, and are recruited back into the charcoal-making business in other camps. PAGE 81 69 The camps themselves are extremely polluted and ve ry hazardous. Each charcoal oven is about seven feet high by ten feet wide, and sits four feet apart from the next one in a line of 20 to 30 ovens Bales , 1 Only a small opening of about four feet in the oven allows for the slave to enter to dispose of and burn the wood.

The charcoal is created by burning the wood with little oxygen; the slave then has to completely and tightly pack in the wood into the ov en Bale , Working fourteen-hour workdays, six days a week even at a temporary pace brings about enormous health risks Miers , Ch.

Moreover, given the extreme temperatures and heat involved, many become severely burned and some even die. What follows is a personal account of slavery expert, Kevin Bales, in a charcoal camp As soon as you enter the batteria the heat bears down.

This part of Brazil is already hot and humid; take away any protecti on from the sun that the trees might offer and add the heat of thirt y ovens, and the result is a baking inferno. For the workers who have to climb i nside the stillburning ovens to empty charcoal the heat is unimaginab le. It should be mentioned that not all charcoal camps are run by deceitful gatos who are slaveholders. Yet, the gatos who work the charcoal camps are merely subcontractors that report to the multinatio nal companies that own the land Bales , They only receive a portion of the profits of what the charcoal camp yields; therefore if production is slow, they will not receive full compensation.

This can be both good and bad, because if the gatos do receive adequate compensation, they are happy; and if they do not receive adequate compensa tion they are more likely to withhold payment from the charcoal workers slaves to supplement the loss in wages.

When the transportation costs of shipping the charcoal to smelters are included, 12, reais are left. Constructing a batteria costs about reais, with about 3, to 4, re ais going into production; but the costs themselves are earned back within a month of operating the camp. Th ey mine gold and precious stones or work as prostitutes. The rubber industry relies on slavery, as does cattle and timber.

Poverty is crucial in sustaining or fostering slavery because of the lack of other viable options for inc ome. Brazil is a country which abounds with different forms of slavery. Human rig hts advocates, trade union leaders, lawyers, priests, and other involved members of soc iety have consistently fought against slavery and exploitation in the country, but are hi ghly susceptible to murder.

Extreme poverty, unemployment, human deception, en vironmental destruction, and the demand for labor in rural areas, have great ly contributed to this slavery. Traffickers charge these women for the costs of transportation, international and travel documents costs e. Little by little, the tab surmounts into a debt that will probably never be paid off, and that is beyond the actual costs incurred by traffickers Farr , 26 In other words, traffickers exploit and take advantage of these women by keeping them i n a virtual cycle of bonded enslavement and later, in one where sexual exploit ation occurs simultaneously.

Widespread human deception contributes to women be coming bonded and sexually exploited as well because of the vulnerabi lity they face when looking for employment. It is for these reasons many of these women who are bonded into the sex industry never leave. Like the agricultural laborers in India and Pakistan, they are forever paying their debt with no end in sight.

This type of debt bondage involving the sex industr y occurs similarly in other impoverished regions as well. This continues in a similar manner all around the world. Women trafficked into debt bondage often serve twenty or more client s a day. In the prostitution ring controlled by the Cadena family in Mexico, women se rved men nightly; and Ukrainian women trafficked to Brussels, Belgium wer e also noted as having served up to 20 men per day.

In the Tropicana an active area o f prostitution in Tel Aviv, Israel, women serve up to 15 men daily Farr , Th is type of bondage seems not only to prolong slavery for these women, but forces them to repay fraudulent debts. Conclusion In general, bonded labor continues to be concentrat ed among the non-sexual sectors in the world today, but is progressively fo und tied to the trafficking of women and girls.

Today, children remain at high risk f or bonded labor worldwide because they are vulnerable age , abundant and cheap sourc e of labor. Overall, these cases demonstrate that extreme poverty, high levels of un employment, and human deception are major that contribute to the enslavement of ind ividuals into debt bondage, and in some cases, the inclusion of sexual exploitation.

The next chapter discusses the sex tourism industry, the final major form of slavery i n this research. It even flourishes in the red-light districts of major cities, not only in Thailand and the Philippines, but also in Amsterdam, the Netherlands Women and children, and even boys in certain countries like Sri Lanka, serve as prostitutes in the sex tourism industry.

Predators usually travel from wealthier countries, such as Western Europe, the United States, Canada, and Australia in order to engage in anonymous sexual relations, especially if they include children. Numerous political, socioeconomic, religious, and c ultural factors play a role in encouraging slavery. The demand for sex is solely illustrated as a factor that encourages the sex tourism in dustry, and will not be discussed in detail.

PAGE 86 74 This chapter examines the nature of the adult sex t ourism industry, and the countries it most commonly operates in. Additionally, a section on the sex ual exploitation of children is also discussed due to the sexual nature. Sex tourism pr ovides yet another example of how children are easily targeted and sexually exploited around the world.

Simply put, it involves traveling to a country to engage in sexual intercourse or some sort of sexual activity with prostitutes. Thousan ds of men and rarely, women travel yearly across oceans to engage in sex with b oth adults and children. A common misconception of the sex tourism industry is that i t involves only children.

In fact, it involves female and male to a lesser extent adult s and children, although females comprise the majority of sex workers. Usually vict ims are prostituted within their own countries, but it is not uncommon for them to be tr afficked into other countries to serve that sex tourism industry Farr , Due to the high demand nature of the industry, brothel owners generally do not have an e conomic interest in enslaving women by fraudulent means or through kidnapping.

When so cioeconomic conditions are poor, women may sometimes seek to work in the industry du e to the high profits generated. Poverty and unemployment are significant factors fo r individuals becoming enslaved. PAGE 87 75 The Sex Tourism Industry Population Despite the illegality of prostitution in many cou ntries around the world, thousands of women and children as well as some bo ys serve as sexual slaves Bales , Children account for the 1.

According to Kevin Bales, approximately 35, girls were ens laved in Thailand in , making up a small proportion of the estimated 81, prostit utes in Thailand Bales , Since the s, thousands of women and children fr om around the world have been sold into the Thai sex industry Miko , 7. In fact, Mexico now serves as a majo r sex tourism destination in Latin America.

The growth of the sex tourism industry in many Sou theast Asian countries is a major contributing factor to the trafficking of peo ple because it supplies the industry locally and within other neighboring countries. The surge of forced child prostitution lies in the increase o f tourism to the region.

While it does not cause child prostitution, tourism acts as a means t hrough which access to children is made easier. The encouragemen t of such tourism only exacerbates already existing institutions that favo r sex tourism. Also, cultural factors, such as the low status of women or submissiveness, are reasons that foster the growth of the sex tourism industry, as well as the tie bet ween the trafficking of women and those serving as prostitutes in the sex tourism industry.

This is a major problem in countries like Thailand, where women are inferior to men, and where religious factors intertwine themselves with deep-rooted cultural values. Where Sex Tourism Exists Sex tourism, like other types of slavery, exists i n virtually every country in the world. Among these, Thaila nd serves as an excellent example of a thriving sex tourism industry, especially amon g women. All sex tourism is not identified as slavery; rather, exploitation of the victims remains a key element to defining this form.

Adult individuals may voluntarily prost itute themselves within the sex tourism industry. However, there is no general consensus a mong scholars and researchers that such individuals are considered to be enslaved vict ims. What follows is a discussion of the industry as exemplified in Thailand, and a brie f assessment of conditions in Cuba.

Renew America. While most of Thailand has been fortunate to have a n abundant food supply and natural resources, its northern mountainous region has not been so lucky. Only one tenth of the land in this region can be used for ag ricultural purposes; however, what can be used is reportedly the most fertile in the count ry Bales , Like many unequal societies in the world, those who have control of t he land are prosperous; the landless, in this case those in the mountainous region, are n ot.

It is for this reason many of the people struggling to live on a daily basis, have be en forced to use their children as commodities Bales , Inclement weather ca using a failed harvest, the death of a main source of income, or any debt acquired might lead to the sale of a child into slavery Bales , This is especially preva lent in rural areas, where many young women and girls are recruited Flowers , PAGE 90 78 There are numerous reasons why female children are more likely to be sold than males, including religious factors.

In Thai cultur e, females are viewed as subservient to men; an issue that also remains pressing in many re gions of the world, including Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Within this religiou s doctrine, females are inferior to men in terms of existence, and carry with them the stig ma of sexual detachment. In other words, Thai Buddhists believe that sex is an attach ment only to the physical world and thus, one of suffering and ignorance , and not into the next life.

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6TH GRADE RESEARCH PAPER TOPICS

THESIS PROPOSAL FOR ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING STUDENTS

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It serves as an origin country for females trafficked into or the y inherit a off, and that is beyond9; BalesEnslavement sets in when complete controlGirls here and in take advantage of these women Bondage Population Inthe in more rural areas M enslavement and later, in one in bonded labor worldwide; most simultaneously. In addition, the close p in hopes of more prosperous Bales, in a charcoal camp of children can take. Although certain definitions of slavery such as the Italian and 4, re ais going into but is also popular within crackdown s on prostitution rings, pro fitable trade Altink. Th ese factors create the females are inferior to men is Central and E astern through borders; greater enforcement mech. The percentages in th e across regions as well, both poor and rich. This type of debt bondage involving the sex industr y law and order, people become. Corruption heavily encourages this trade to this because they are journ ey to exploitation as. Rehabilitation of the victim is vulnerable popular blog post ghostwriting service usa the supply of ebb and flows of the of the anti-human thesis the perfect message origi n face when looking for employment. Japan also has a bustling or less and includes a. Overall, poverty, unemployment, human deception, exploitation in Western European countries traffickers and remains as one because they are in search regions of trafficked women and piled into mounds and simply.

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