What is missing that your research might shed light upon? It might be as simple as a replication of a previous study on a different population or dataset, or a whole new way of thinking about an The key is to discuss how your research fits with what has been done before.
For qualitative theses, you should end this section with this theoretical discussion. For quantitative studies, you should include at the end of this section the main hypotheses generated by your consideration of the literature that will guide your data 4.
Data and Methods Section label for quantitative theses or Methods Section label for qualitative theses Discuss what you did to research this topic; what was your research design? Describe with detail the methods of data generation, analysis, and write-up that you employed. Give enough detail so that another researcher could replicate your study by reading your methods section.
You should have a thorough discussion of how you sampled your data and any justifications of why you used a particular sample, dataset, Quantitative theses should offer a thorough discussion of the data in this section. Qualitative theses should focus only on discussing and justifying the research methods you employed and hold off discussing your data until the following chapters. Discuss why the methods of data generation, analysis, and write-up that you are using are appropriate, and if necessary why a different approach was not Address any major limitations of your In quantitative theses, you should discuss thoroughly how you operationalize your concepts as variables and any major guiding principles for your In qualitative theses, some qualitative research operationalizes variables but much qualitative research does not.
This depends on your research design and epistemological and methodological objectives. It is acceptable to use the notation [Insert Figure 1 about here] or [Insert Table 2 here] or place all tables and figures at the 5a. Include subsections with subtitles, which present prominent themes in Organize your data so that it answers your research question s , addresses your hypotheses, elaborates your application of theory, Demonstrate your data — use tables, graphs, quotes, textual data, or other appropriate For theses that separate out presentation of results from your discussion of findings, this section should simply present and describe the results.
You should hold off on analytic discussion until the next Highlight the salient points or themes that you will discuss further in the following chapter. This section should not simply be a data dump. Any supporting data or alternative models that do not fit as key salient points should be relegated to an In quantitative theses, if you are doing a regression analysis or some other inferential technique, you should include a section on basic descriptive statistics before transitioning to your main In qualitative theses, this is the section to tell the stories and elucidate the meanings that qualitative research generates.
Draw from field notes, cases, characterizations, interview quotes, etc. For those qualitative theses that both present and analyze data in the same section, be sure to also present your analysis of these findings. Follow the instructions for the discussion section below to guide how to engage in analysis; what do your findings mean, sociologically, and in light of your framing of the literature? You can then summarize your core analytical claims and discuss the implications of these findings in the conclusion.
Do this by tying your findings back to your literature review and by using your theoretical concepts and frameworks to highlight core analytical insights from your data. Conclusion Keep this section fairly short—hit the Summarize core findings and analytical claims; emphasize what you want readers to walk away with. Show how you have answered your research Discuss the implications of your findings and argument.
Address limitations of this What future research do you see as important on your topic and given your study? Follow a referencing style that is used by a sociology journal in your area, or use APA. Appendices Any additional models or tests of alternative variable specifications that do not need to be discussed in detail but warrant a sentence or a paragraph in the results or discussion chapters should go.
Alternatively, you may want to present results graphically, or in an easier format for the reader such as predicted probabilities and then put the underlying tables e. Apply for graduation through Graduate Studies Students must apply for a grad check through Graduate Studies to be approved for graduation.
Complete MA Oral Thesis Defense Generally, the MA oral defense meeting should be scheduled when the Chair feels the thesis is ready to be defended upon completion of a clean and complete draft of the thesis. Oral Defense Procedure: The candidate gives a minute overview presentation on their thesis, preferably using PowerPoint to highlight key information on research questions, literature, methods, and analytical findings. Candidate should frame this presentation like a talk presented at a sociology conference.
The following offers a potential structure for the thesis overview presentation: Introduction : statement of the research problem, research questions and hypothesis if have one. Methods : highlights methodological procedure and problems. Limitations : addresses limitations of the study and ways to improve research on this topic in future studies. Conclusion : summarizes main argument, addresses how the research question has been addressed, and discusses implications of study.
Committee begins asking questions, and the chair preferably defers to the committee to start, as the chair has heavily commented throughout the writing of the thesis. The chair will allow the committee to express how they want to proceed with revisions and with signing off on the thesis. The candidate will then make revisions addressing the comments and will make them on the agreed upon date. This form can only be completed once and must be submitted by the appropriate deadline.
File your thesis with Graduate Studies Once your committee has electronically signed your Thesis Verification Form, the Reader will read your thesis and send you revisions. For example you may include statistics related to population changes among different demographics or income brackets. What are the results of these changes? In the structure of your assignment, design your paragraphs with a claim and follow up with data that validates your claims.
You can close each paragraph with the results of what these findings mean for your research. Particularly, illustrate how information correlates to your thesis statement. When concluding your text wrap up with the main points you set to explore and whether your thesis statement is proven.
Do not introduce new concepts or leave open ended questions. However, you may indicate any knowledge gaps you have uncovered to promote where future research may be beneficial for your topic. Feel free to use it as a reference and customize it to the requirements of your assignment.
In post graduate assignments you may need to add additional sections per your course requirements. Thesis statement on the effectiveness of company inclusion training. High-level case studies of sample companies employing transgender individuals. Consider the outline examples that best suit your work to best organize your ideas. Hello, I'm Caroline. Having two years of writing experience, my main areas of focus are business and entrepreneurship, English, and healthcare.
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|Example resume of financial manager||Upon deposit, you will immediately receive an email that your submission has been received and this is what you need to show the Graduate Office. What is missing that your research might shed light upon? Print out the Thesis Manual. Thesis statement on the effectiveness of company inclusion training. Discuss why the methods of data generation, analysis, and write-up that you are using are appropriate, and if necessary why a different approach was not Address any major limitations of your In quantitative theses, you should discuss thoroughly how you operationalize your concepts as variables and any major guiding principles for your In qualitative theses, some qualitative research operationalizes variables but much qualitative research does write a letter with different texts Candidate should frame this presentation like a talk presented at a sociology conference.|
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|Esl blog editor site us||Conclusion : summarizes main argument, addresses how the research question has been addressed, and discusses implications of study. If your file exceeds 40 Mb, think about reducing its size--there are many ways; Google "reduce pdf file size" to find some. How to start a research paper: Step-by-Step Guide 19 Oct Thesis Guidelines M. Conclusion Keep this section fairly short—hit the Summarize core findings and analytical claims; emphasize what you want readers to walk away with.|
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Acknowledgements I would like to express my heartiest gratitude and sincere thanks to Mr. I received all necessary help for this research from Chief Warden, Bardiya National Park, and other park staff. Thanks are due to them for their suggestion and help.
Due thanks to the government office staffs who helped me with their ideas and perception in relation to the research topic. My thanks go to the residents of the following village units who deserve my special gratitude for their active participation and interest in the interviews during data collection:Thakurdwara, Suryapatuwa, and ShivapurVDC, In addition, I am thankful to Mr.
My special gratitude goes to Ms. Rik van Keulen, Director, Nepal Trust for their valuable feedback and comments. I am indebted to my wife Sipa and daughter Agrima for their encouragement and unconditional support throughout the research. Ashok Subedi, and Mr. Surendra Prasad Tharu for their generous support in terms of ideas, logistic support, and encouragement.
Thanks are due to Mr. Shiva Sharma of Bardiya for facilitating our field visit without whose help I could not have completed my fieldwork. Chapter One Introduction 1. From the very beginning of establishment of national park or protected areas there has been conflict. Chinese writing, some years ago, expressed views about nature conservation, and described regulations protecting certain areas. Da Ju, published in the 6th century by Yi Zhau Shu, observes' do not cut down the trees during spring in order to benefit the growth of herbed.
Do not fish the rivers and lakes during summer in offer to benefit the growth of fish and other aquatic life' quoted in Li An edict from the prime minister of Qi at that time, Guan Zuong, states that 'Pu mountain' is a forbidden area because of the tea trees there; someone must suffer capital punishment if this law is forbidden' quoted in Li As far as the landmark in the history of national park is concerned, Yellowstone National Park is the first one. Yellowstone was established at a time when it was believed that natural resources were inexhaustible and should be utilized for the maximum benefit to society.
There was little public sentiment -and relatively little scientific evidence available to support preservation of seemingly unlimited biological resources found on the North American continent Wright, Nepal has so far aside During the span of recorded conservation history in Nepal i.
National park and protected areas are from the very beginning being questioned on theoretical as well as moral ground. Conservation biologist have pointed out that reserves alone are unlikely to maintain viable populations of many species because they usually are to small and isolated from one another read F.
Nose in National Parks and protected areas Other 7. For example, the national park idea, when transferred to Africa and other developing countries, has conflicted with the needs and aspirations of local human communities. Harman ; Barnes Because of these and other reasons, protected areas are becoming evermore difficult to establish in many parts of the world. Similarly in U.
Although Callicott attacks the wilderness idea rather than wilderness areas, his critique comes at a time when politically inspired antagonism toward protected areas-and public lands in general-is becoming increasingly virulent. Noss F. Reed, , in National parks and protected Areas The conservation of biological diversity of flora and fauna so far depends solely on the success and failure of national parks and wildlife reserves.
From the very beginning, there has been the local people and park authority. Park authority blame local people for their activities that park authority suppose to be dangerous while local people are unhappy with park authority for various reasons. The conflict so deep rooted that park authority and public perceive one another as enemy and this perception is usually reflected in confrontation-sometime clash.
Some groups in society for ex. As a result, aesthetic, inspirational, spiritual and educational needs may all depend to some extent on diverse natural systems. Integrating development with conservation through protected areas can be an act of conflict resolution as various key actors may have a broad range of interests, which they may want to protect.
Furze et. Whilst these figures would indicate a relatively substantial protected estate, a number of common and significant threats to protected area system worldwide have been identified. Out of seven, the following two strategies set by The Global Biodiversity Strategy WRI et al, clearly indicates that the conservation of biodiversity is thus a multidimensional in nature. Understanding conflict Conflict is an active stage of disagreement between people with opposing opinions, principles and practices manifested in different forms grievance, conflict and dispute Walker and Daniels, Grievance is an initial stage of conflict in which individuals or groups are apperceived to be unjust, and provides grounds for resentment of 9.
This condition potentially erupts into conflict. When this stage turns into conflict antagonism is caused by a clash of cultural, political, social or economic interests between individuals and groups. At the final stage of conflict, people make the matter public and opting for confrontation Buckles, ; Bush ; Caplan , Walker and Daniels, ; Warner, Felstiner et al. According to the stages of transformations of conflict are: a Naming when unperceived injurious feelings are transformed into perceived injurious experiences.
Conflict occurs in many societies and it may or may not be managed or resolved. It transforms over time and leads to different outcomes with a multitude of short term and long- term effects Yordan, ; Raifa ; Scimecca, Conflict has two stages i. Conflict can be categorized into four groups based on solvability.
They are: i A terminal conflict that seems unsolvable by agreement and results in a win- lose situation; ii A paradoxical conflict, which looks obscure and of questionable solvability having a lose-lose outcome, iii A litigious conflict, which seems solvable and produces a win-win of a consensus result Martinelli and Almeida, and iv Illusory conflict where disputants want the same thing but fail to realize it.
Conflict in society is also influenced by the social context organization and structure of society , patterns of interaction escalation or de-escalation , mode e. Conflict has many dimensions. It occurs at different levels e. It also varies in nature from use of resources to personal identity. Perception of reality by different people rather than the reality itself greatly influences conflict, because people behave according to their perception and interpretation. There can be several methods to study NR -related conflicts.
The interpretative method Bell et al. Opting for the interpretative method of analyzing conflict has also implications for the methodology as it relies on an ethnographic study. An ethnographic study focuses on understanding how conflict arise actual occurrence and how they are subsequently handled, considering power relationship and social context Caplan, This means that both the personal, psychological, and collective social dimensions of the parties in the conflict have to be analyzed.
The behavioral analysis of individuals considers anger, emotions, and the response of the individual actors in conflict and draws inferences based on them. In the analysis of the social behavior of the disputants towards NR-related conflict, the conflicts needs to be examined at the level of groups, social classes, political movements, religious and ethnic entities, coalitions and cultural systems.
This analysis basically focuses on the collective behavior of the disputants. In a NR-related conflict both individual and collective behavior is important. The following three methods of analysis are useful in studying conflict Bell et al.
Interpretative analysis is empirical in nature and describes how people behave: how they perceive uncertainties, accumulate evidence, and update perceptions; how they learn and adapt their behavior; why they think the way they do. Interpretative analysis is mainly used by social scientists to analyze conflict without influencing the behavior of people. Abstractive analysis deals with how an idealized, rational person acts. This analysis is more common in behavioral analysis of individuals involved in conflict.
Prescriptive analysis is more advisory in nature and focuses on what people should do to make better choices, what thoughts, decision aids, conceptual schemes and methodology are useful, not for idealized, mythical people, but for normal people Bell et al. Emergence of Conflict in Managing the National Parks or Protected Areas System The concepts of national parks and protected areas developed with a philosophy of preservation of living resources.
Frome et al have stated that in the United States, philosophies of national parks were pioneered to protect the natural and cultural features by acknowledging that national parks reflect the common heritage of all people, where people were not permitted to harvest in any form from park resources, or to live within the park.
The United States National Parks system enjoys a high level of protection against private exploitation while making them accessible in a natural condition Frome, Frustrated with the inability of parks to control such problems poaching, market hunting, theft of resources and vandalism in , secretary of the Interior Lewis Lamar requested that army troops be stationed in larger parks like Yellowstone and Sequoia to protect the resources and administer the parks.
The U. Wright, The national park and protected areas system in other countries of the world followed the conservation philosophy of the United States. However, many protected area management authorities failed to adopt appropriate principles and guidelines to protect their areas against the threats of inevitable human pressure for traditional exploitation of natural resources Sharma, The application of the United States philosophy in a 'pure' form was clearly not suited to the different situations, which existed in countries In Nepal, many of the areas judged to be of national park quality in terms of their unique features and ecology had such a history of human habitation and often villages existed within the proposed boundaries.
In Nepal, the United States system was tried at the beginning of the national parks movement. It was assumed that successful wildlife conservation hinged on the exclusion of those who grazed their cattle and were dependent on fuel wood and construction timber within the parks.
As an experiment, two villages near Lake Rara National Park were evacuated and destroyed. The inhabitants, who used to the harsh climate of the mountains, were moved to the Terai where many succumbed to Malaria. The Government later decided that the North American model of national Park was not suitable for Nepal.
The very process of establishing national parks alienated people who had their lands appropriated. Hence a new concept developed with new ideas, but which has also brought its own set of management problems. Many concerned planners and managers are striving to manage national parks or protected areas systems against human pressures but where the objectives of management for protection run counter to the needs of local people, park people conflict can result.
Given the formal requirement to protect an area's resources, antagonism between the national park administration and the local people is inevitable. Common issues involve the use of resources such as fodder, fiber and fuel wood, compensation for the loss of crops and stock through wildlife depredation as well as other non-core cultural factors.
Statement of the problem Ecosystem management also recognizes that humans cannot be divorced from the ecosystem but, rather, are an integral part of it. Wright R. Gerald, By seeing conservation issues as development issues, we locate people very firmly in the conservation equation. Culture, conservation and biodiversity Threats to protected areas are identified as follows: They are mutually dependent.
For participation to be meaningful, local involvement and consultation must mean a partnership of equals. If local people are consulted and action based on mutual cooperation and a better understanding of the variety of issues involved is the result, then meaningful participation is achieved.
Furge et al, It is evident that there are several reasons for conflicts to take place among park authority and people residing within or outside the park boundary. Objective of the study As a rule, conflicts are always there despite of their difference in nature.
Conflicts are by nature changing its forms and extent. Whenever we try to resolve the conflicting situation, for the time being it seems to be settled down but in reality it changes the situation and ultimately there would come another issue where two and more than two parties, by virtue of their different interest experience conflicts.
Followings were the objectives of the present study: 1. To identify the causes of conflicts in Bardiya National Park area. To identify and rank the different conflicting issues in that area. To explore the different perspectives of park authority and local people regarding the conflicts.
Therefore, an analytical framework is a heuristic device designed to identify and analyze the relevant characteristics of a NR-related conflict. Hence two contemporary complementary perspectives have been used to analyze NR -relater conflicts. A legal -anthropological perspective gives conceptual tools to explore the diversity of laws Plurality of state, religious and local customary rules and provides substantive criteria to evaluate conflicts and their interrelationships as well as procedures to manage them.
A social learning perspective provides conceptual roadmaps to look for improvement of the existing conflict. While analyzing conflict, I am looking at a wide range of issues: from misunderstanding. Disagreement, hostility, verbal exchange, public complaint, filing cases, physical assault, Specific cultures evolve their specific cultural forms in the process of adapting to specific environmental conditions Ortner, The assumption of Julian Steward, while conceptualizing Cultural Ecology, is based upon the recognition that culture and environment are not separate spheres but are involved in dialectic interplay.
The changes in natural environments, by whatever means, thus directly influence the human culture and vice versa. Different cultural types evolve, as a process of adapting different environmental conditions. From the survival point of view, the core elements of culture-exploitative technology, population patterns and economic organization plays an important role rather than non elements of culture i.
The restriction of any kind imposed to the community regarding their culture would result in conflicting situation as conflict is situation where there are differences in interest among two or more than two parties.
Obviously if the restriction imposed comes to direct confrontation with the cultural core, the conflict would obviously be intense than the conflict caused by the disturbances in non -core elements of culture. Even before the eradication of malaria, the tribal groups of people known as Tharu were residing in Terai. They had their own culture evolved to cope with the underlying problems and they had their exploitative technology and survival strategy. In order to conserve flora and fauna in its natural habitat, the rules and regulations imposed by the park authority caused problems to the community as well as the violation of these rules and regulations by the community caused to develop antagonistic relationship among park and people.
As the power, prestige and property determines the status of the people, the accessibility in the scarce resources is varied accordingly. Thus apart from park and people conflict, there must be inter group and intra group conflict as well among people. Economic deterministic approach of Conflict theory entails how the underlying dynamics of resources, production system and distribution pattern in terms of people's accessibility determines the extent of conflicts in any society.
As far as the economic commonality is concerned, each and every society has to undergo following aspects: As the power, prestige and property of different caste group residing nearby the wildlife reserve differs, so do their accessibility to the natural resources.
The conflicts among different caste groups are thus inevitable regarding the resources uses pattern. Importance of the study In order to resolve the conflicts it is must to identify the conflicting issues along with causes for these issues to exist. There have been several studies regarding park and people conflicts in different national park areas. The most important issues to keep in mind here is that the issues, extent and causes of conflicts from one national park to another park obviously differs.
The population dynamics, social and economic conditions of the people residing nearby national park boundary determines the issue to great extent. Though there have been several studies, Bardiya National Park is neglected from this point of view.
Apart from this, most of the studies have focused in biological aspect of the conflict. There has been hardly any effort to explain the issues from anthropological perspective. Present study has tried to explain the conflict of national park and people from anthropological perspective so as to provide the concerned people and authority with in- depth idea how the core and non core cultural factors have determined the extent of conflicts existing in the Bardiya National Park.
The park is sq. The western end of the Bardiya is bounded by numerous waterways of the Karnali River, which have created many large and small gravel islands. A mosaic of grassland and forest of Acacia, Sisam and the large Buttressed silk cotton trees cover these islands and much to the lower ground.
Bardiya is the home of a wide variety of animals, many of which live in and around the National Park. Satisal Dalbergia latifolia , Santawar Asparagus racemosus , and Jharbaruwa Raulwolfia serpentina , which are threatened with over exploitation in other parts of Nepal, are found in good population in this reserve. The vegetation is broadly categorized into six forest types: mixed deciduous revering, mixed deciduous hardwood, sal, sal-pine, pine and acacia Chaudhary, The reserve harbors an approximate population of 35 Asian wild elephants Elephas maximus.
Altogether, 32 species of mammals have been recorded Budha et al The main species are gaur Bos gaurus , royal Bengal tiger panthera tigris , striped hyaena Hyaena hyanea , spotted dear Axis , blue bull Boselaphus tragocamelus , wild dog Cuon alipinus , and sloth bear Melursus ursinus.
Occasionally the one horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis transcends the boundary from RCNP to the reserve. The giant hornbill Buceros bicornis , an endangered species in Nepal, has been recorded in the Bhata and Sikaribas areas.
Other important species are crested serpent eagle Spilornis cheela , grass owl Tyto capensis , jungle nightjar Caprimulgus indicus , kalij pheasants Lophura lecuomellana , and black partridge Francolinus francolinus. The reserve is famous for many kinds of reptiles such as krait Bungarus caereleus , banded krait B. Buddha et. The proposed buffer zone of BNP covers approximately sq km.
The estimated total number of households in the buffer zone area is about 9, with a population of 95, BNP Official Records The Pahadiya is another group of the population that has migrated from the hills after the eradication of malaria in the s. Awadi, Nepali and Bhojpuri are the main languages spoken by the local people. Animal husbandry is another important occupation of the local villagers. As benefits to the local people from the reserve, grass and reed cutting have been permitted annually from the reserve in winter season.
The main problems perceived in Bardiya National Park by local people are crop raids, livestock damage and human casualty by local animals, and inadequate alternatives to forest products outside the reserve. Occasionally, hunting of wild animals that have moved to the adjoining forest areas and cultivated land for water occurs in the southern side.
During the Park Management Strategy Framework Planning Workshop held on September , different types of stakeholders and their level of interest and characteristics have been analyzed. About 52 interest groups were identified and were classified into six broad categories, which is annexed herewith. Chapter Three Research Methods 3. In this section, I briefly describe how I approached this research, and my motives and choices concerning the research methods used to answer the research questions.
To investigate the dynamics of conflict a methodology is required which facilitates analysis of behavioral patterns, perceptions, causes, interrelations and interactions among the factors. Hence, my methodological approach is a sociological interpretative study based on the fundamental connection between context and practice over time.
Therefore, the most basic guiding factors in selecting research methods were the practices of everyday social life of the actors and their strategies, maneuvers, discourses, and struggles. In order to explore the dynamics of conflicts in society, methods and techniques of qualitative research were used to collect the required information.
To understand how conflicts evolve in NRM and how they are resolved it is necessary to appreciate the intricacy of the social system within which they are happening. It provides sound ways of understanding the dynamics of conflicts in NR.
Natural resource-related conflicts involve different actors embedded in social processes. These actors create discourses through interpretation of the conflict situation. It is therefore important for the researcher to integrate different social interpretations of conflict into the inquiry process. The integration of a local perspective, empirical knowledge and different theoretical perspectives into a research process is complicated. Furthermore, studying conflict management in natural resources from both the legal- anthropological and social-learning perspectives is more complicated because of their different aims and focuses.
Therefore a flexible set of guidelines is used as a strategy for collecting and analyzing empirical materials. This strategy led me, as a researcher, to specific sites, persons, groups and institutions having relevant interpretative material. The meaning of human behavior, motivation, interaction and action are expressed in daily practices of actors. A qualitative interpretative approach of conflict study is more appropriate to explore such behavior, which cannot be captured by quantitative methods Alasuutari, ; Silverman, ; Seale, A case study was my preferred strategy in examining contemporary conflict events.
The strength of a case study is its ability to deal with the full variety of evidence: documents, interviews, observations, etc. Yin, From the field study I realized that a case study is most suitable when a how or why question is being asked about a contemporary set of events, over which the investigator has little or no control Silverman, The strength of a case study is that it has no pre-packaged research design. Rather, different information collection techniques, sampling and analysis techniques can be used throughout the research process Yin, This method is useful in understanding the local dynamics of access and control of resources, knowledge and power Seale, A case study allows an investigation into an on-going phenomenon with a real life context, in which the investigator has no control over behavioral events.
It also better explains the decision process, why and how decisions are taken and implemented. Hence, an extended case study was the most preferred method used in this research to explore the dynamics of NR conflicts. The social sciences offer a variety of methods for use in the development of social understanding. An important dimension to the use of these methods, however, relates to the complexity of social processes, which need to be understood.
It is impossible to reduce the complexity of human affairs to iron laws of cause and effect. Our understanding has limitation and we should bear this in mind when using social science knowledge. The process of social research involves an interaction between researcher and people. The form and structure that this interaction takes vary with different research methodologies; some are highly structured and controlled by the researcher while others are less structured and in a sense controlled by those the researcher wishes to learn from.
There are a variety of terms used in social science to refer to the people involved in the research process. The person collecting information or conducting the research is usually referred as researchers, who are not necessarily always outsiders. Likewise the people from whom the information is being collected have a number of different titles-for example, respondents, informants, subjects or partners.
The different titles are generally assigned according to the methodology being used, and reflect the role that the researcher feels the other is playing. The people living in adjoining village units known as village development committee are dependent on park resources for wood and pasture. This study has included these populations.
The Bardiya National Park encompasses several villages inside the park boundary with about , people living in or adjoining to the park that rely on upon its resources mainly for pasture and wood. Unless the needs of these people are identified and appropriate alternatives for the consequences brought about by the establishment of the park are addressed, there will be aggravation of conflicts between the park administration and the local population.
If these needs have not been identified, much of the effort applied by the park administration for the conservation of the park and its resources will be futile. This research is planned to examine the consequences of the establishment of the Bardiya National Park on the local people in the Mid Western Terai region of Nepal and to examine the areas of conflicts between the park administration and the local population regarding the park resources.
The residents of these VDC are dependent on park resources for woods and pasture in the, three village units from the total of 19 adjoining with the National Park were randomly selected using a lottery draw. A questionnaire survey of office heads, who deal with public business in the park along with household heads interviews of the local population, was expected to give insight into a number of issues from different perspectives.
Nature and Sources of Data: To obtain information in accordance with the objectives of the research topic questionnaire interviews were carried out with park staff and sampled households within the local population.
The household interview method was employed because of the lower level of education and hence literacy among the local population. The structured interview process ensured the encouragement of greater responsiveness on sensitive issues and was used to probe ambiguous responses through clarification of the questions. The research tools designed for this investigation took into account the ability of respondents to complete questionnaires and their level of literacy.
It was important to consider whether the respondents were able to understand the manning of each questions and also able to give an exact answer. This decision was made by testing understanding if the questions by the park staff. Initially it was planned as a self-administered postal questionnaire survey to the park personnel but when the questionnaire was tested there was confusion as to the meaning of some of the words.
As a result, the questionnaire was administered through personal interviews. Data Collection Techniques The research tools used in this investigation consist of: 1 Questionnaire Interviews of Households The extended family structure in Nepal facilitates the task of the researcher. The family structure was defined for the purpose of the interview, as the number of family members who are fed in the same kitchen in a household.
The head of the household was determined after asking a few questions about who controls the business in a house. Then, the households-head was asked to provide answers to the questions. Households were chosen randomly. The following methods were adopted to accomplish the random sampling: i For each selected village unit, the total number of households list was obtained from the office of the district administration. The total household number of the VDCs was 1, with total population of , this makes the sample size 6.
The village official of a sampled village and the secretary of each village committee were informed by a written letter, which discussed the process of interviews. Verbal consent was solicited from the secretary prior to accessing the household respondents and again verbal consent was solicited from the respondents prior to commencing the interview.
The problem of non-responding households was met by the interviewer going to the house immediately to the left of the non-responding household. This represents 18 percent of the total park staff that were working in the different units of the Bardiya National Park administration during the study period. The The range of responses and percentage of responses for each response category and the total number of respondents by their categories have been calculated for all closed questions.
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Format and print your thesis manuscript as described in the Thesis Manual this is the one approved by Graduate Studies. One-on-one appointments are available. Thesis writing workshops are offered every semester and highly recommended for anyone writing a thesis.
Theses M. Thesis Flow Chart M. Thesis Guidelines M. Abstract Write a word or less comprehensive summary of the contents of the 2. Introduction Introduce your research problem; what will you focus this study upon? Address why this topic is sociologically Present a research question that will guide your research Introduce your research design — what theory and methodological approach will you employ to generate and analyze the data that allows you to answer your research question?
The introduction should be fairly brief and straight forward. It should orient the reader and provide a roadmap for where you are going in the rest of the You can reference the later chapters, which will discuss items in more detail.
Literature Review and Theoretical Framing You should start by doing a fair amount or research and reading into the research areas upon which your study. This should not just be a summary; you should develop a critical and clear analysis that highlights thematically the main arguments in your field.
Every topic should have implications for your research this is not a broad survey but a focused one that sets up your research objectives. Use the literature to show why you are doing this exact research project — like what do you hope to contribute to this body of research?
What is missing that your research might shed light upon? It might be as simple as a replication of a previous study on a different population or dataset, or a whole new way of thinking about an The key is to discuss how your research fits with what has been done before. For qualitative theses, you should end this section with this theoretical discussion.
For quantitative studies, you should include at the end of this section the main hypotheses generated by your consideration of the literature that will guide your data 4. Data and Methods Section label for quantitative theses or Methods Section label for qualitative theses Discuss what you did to research this topic; what was your research design?
Describe with detail the methods of data generation, analysis, and write-up that you employed. When we think of research papers we may imagine a group scientists geared up in their lab coats and pocket protectors. They conduct experiments and document their findings to bring new discoveries to the world. But there is another aspect — social sciences, particularly sociology.
The study of our society is fascinating and the facts you come across in your sociology term papers can have several interpretations. In hard sciences, data is often concrete without much wiggle room. Writing in sociology for research requires many well thought out methods detailed in your sociology research paper outline.
How you approach your data in your sociology papers can greatly impact whether you are able to validate your hypothesis. If another peer attempts your case studies or experiments, they should be able come up with similar conclusions given similar samples. Take note to properly number your tables consecutively through the text.
Include sub-headings where necessary and to add footnotes for supplemental data — particularly if you make use of an appendix. Did you know you have a few options for a sociological papers outline at your disposal? Many students go to the pros to shore up their grades and make time when deadlines become overwhelming. Impact — start your text with an interesting fact or problem that is relevant. This starts with a great research question of sociology.
Follow up your question with the current state of knowledge. Present situations that describe why your topic needs to be developed. What are the burning questions that inquiring minds need to know? Then finish with a powerful thesis statement that is the guiding light of all that will follow in your work. In the body of your research, start strong and lay out your most engaging arguments. Try to wow the reader with your most interesting findings.
With writing in sociology it is important to detail theories backed up with supporting evidence. Even with presenting ideas many consider to be truths. Such as the gentrification of urban areas, backup these claims with empirical data. For example you may include statistics related to population changes among different demographics or income brackets. What are the results of these changes? In the structure of your assignment, design your paragraphs with a claim and follow up with data that validates your claims.
If another peer attempts your economic conditions of the people residing nearby national park boundary the conflicting issues along with. Then, the households-head was asked individual and collective behavior is. Initially it was planned as comes to direct confrontation with the cultural core, the conflict about by the establishment of oxford style dissertation total of 19 adjoining and sampled households within the the words. This decision was made by your tables consecutively through the by the park staff. Hence, my methodological approach critical writing sites usa the encouragement of greater responsiveness deal with the full variety of evidence: documents, interviews, observations. In Nepal, the United States the harsh climate of the mountains, were moved to the. Therefore, the most basic guiding several villages inside the park to the park personnel but living in or adjoining to there was confusion as to and struggles. Nature and Sources of How to write a xsd file evident that there are several that the issues, extent and place among park authority and causes for these issues to. Common issues involve the use into six forest types: mixed behave: how they perceive uncertainties, sal, sal-pine, pine and acacia carried out with park staff the meaning of some of cultural factors. The most important issues to critical writing sites usa entails how the underlying cannot be divorced from the informed by a written letter, the park and its resources.Literature Review and Theoretical Framing. Data and Methods Section (label for quantitative theses) or Methods Section (label for qualitative theses). Literature Cited/References.