Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. See an APA sample paper reference list at the end of this entire section. The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period see Section 9.
When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source. You can name up to 20 authors in the reference. Use this format:. Roberts, A. Lopez, G. If the source lacks an author, place the title in the first position in the reference Section 9. On an APA reference page, corporate authors are always written out in full. In the text of your paper, you may have some abbreviations such as UN for United Nations , but in the full references, always include the full names of the corporation or organization following Section 9.
United Nations. Include the full date for newspapers and magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n. Narducci, M. The Philadelphia Inquirer. If using our APA Citation Machine, our citation generator will add the correct format for you automatically. Giving a retrieval date is not needed unless the online content is likely to be frequently updated and changed e.
Citation Machine [ CiteMachine]. Tweets [Twitter profile]. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other non-periodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in the APA citation.
For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks in the reference list. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone.
Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. If you feel it would be helpful to include additional information about the source type, include a descriptive noun or two in brackets immediately following the title. Capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K. Jurassic Park [Film]. USA: Universal. If you are using Citation Machine citing tools, additional information about the title is automatically added for you.
For books and reports, include the publisher name but not the location see Section 9. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. Other common terms, such as Inc.
For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized.
There is no space after the closing parenthesis and before the volume number. Giannoukos, G. A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews , 11 9 , DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs.
When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. Make sure you run your completed paper through the Citation Machine Plus smart proofreader, which scans for grammar, spelling, and plagiarism.
An APA annotated bibliography is a full bibliography that includes a small note for each reference citation. Each note should be short paragraphs and contain a summary or your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations on CitationMachine. Follow the publication manual guidelines on paper format and writing style. Let your instructor guide other details about your annotations.
Still confused? Read our guide on annotated bibliographies. Need help with the design and formatting of your paper? Look no further! This section provides the ins and outs of properly displaying the information in your APA essay. Keep in mind that the order above is the recommendation for papers being submitted for peer review.
Each journal has different rules and procedures. Just a little nudge to remind you about the Citation Machine Plus smart proofreader. In older editions of APA, running heads were required for all papers. The running head displays the title of the paper and the page number on all pages of the paper. This header is found on every page of a professional paper not a student paper , even on the title page sometimes called an APA cover page and reference list taken from Section 2.
It's displayed all in capital letters at the top of the page. Across from the running head, along the right margin, is the page number. A title page, sometimes called an APA cover page, graces the cover of an essay or paper. An APA title page should follow rules from Section 2. Follow the directions for the running head and page number in the section above.
Below the running head, a few lines beneath, and centered in the middle of the page, should be the title. All components on this page should be written in the same font and size as the rest of your paper. Double space the title, names, name of school or institution, and all other information on the page except for the running head and page number.
Each journal is different and some may request a different type of APA format cover page. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to CitationMachine. An abstract briefly but thoroughly summarizes dissertation contents. Abstracts are meant to help readers determine whether to continue reading the entire document. With that in mind, try to craft the lead sentence to entice the reader to continue reading.
Example abstract:. If your paper includes a lot of numerical information or data, you may want to consider placing it into a table or a figure, rather than typing it all out. A visual figure or simple, organized table filled with numerical data is often easier for readers to digest and comprehend than tons of paragraphs filled with numbers.
Chapter 7 of the Publication manual outlines formatting for tables and figures. Let's cover the basics below. The 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was released in The current 7th edition came out in the fall of and was designed to be more student focused, provide more guidance on accessibility, and address changes that have developed over the last 10 years.
For example:. Accretion of a giant planet onto a white dwarf star. Nature, , 61— There are few new guidelines when you are citing a book. First, the publisher location no longer needs to be indicated. The font should be blue and underlined, or black and not underlined. Flood, A. Britain has closed almost libraries since , figures show.
The Guardian. Within a full APA citation, you may spell out up to 20 author names. For sources with 21 or more authors, structure it as follows:. Trump, D. This helps abbreviate the mention. Instead of having different formats for tables and figures, both use one standardized format. Worry less about a determiner , preposition , or adverb out of place and focus on your research! American Psychological Association. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed.
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Wendy Ikemoto. Michele Kirschenbaum has been an awesome school librarian since and is an expert in citing sources. Choose your source. Website Book Journal More. Keep all of your citations in one safe place Create an account to save all of your citations.
What is it? Common ways students and scholars accidentally plagiarize Believe it or not, there are instances when you could attempt to include in-text and full references in the appropriate places, but still accidentally plagiarize. Here are some common mistakes to be aware of: Mistake 1 - Misquoting sources: If you plan to use a direct quote, make sure you copy it exactly as is. Make sure you quote and paraphrase properly in order to prevent accidental plagiarism.
Why was this style created? The evolution of this style The guide below is based on APA style 7th edition, which was released in Details on the differences between the 6th and 7th editions is addressed later in this guide. Date published. To start, simply click on the source type you're citing: Website Books Journal articles YouTube Images Moviews Interview Newspaper Magazines PDF In-text citations An APA in-text citation is included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source.
In-text citation APA example: According to a study done by Kent and Giles , student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. Structure for two authors Place the authors in the order they appear on the source. Last name Author 1 et al. Agbayani et al. Jackson, a OR Jackson a Writers can even lump dates together. Example: Jackson often studied mammals while in Africa a, b.
On the APA reference page, include the same letters in the full references. Groups and organizations Write out the full name of the group or organization in the first citation and place the abbreviation next to it in brackets. Example: Obama, ; Monroe et al. Reference list citation components References display the full information for all the citations found in the body of a research project.
Some things to keep in mind when it comes to the references: All references sit together on their own page, which is usually the last page s of a paper. Keep the title in the same font and size as the references. Do not italicize, underline, place the title in quotation marks, or increase the font size. The entire page is double spaced. If the source lacks an author, alphabetize the source by the title ignore A, An, or The All references have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch.
See examples throughout this guide. Remember, each and every citation in the text of the paper MUST have a full reference displayed in the reference list. The citations in the text provide the reader with a quick glimpse about the sources used, but the references in the reference list provide the reader with all the information needed to seek out the source themselves. Format: Last name, F.
Example: Angelou, M. Doyle, A. Two or more authors When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source. Use this format: Last name, F. OR Last name, F. Photographs are simple to find, and because of this, many students enjoy using them in their papers. If you have a photograph you would like to include in your project, here are some guidelines from the American Psychological Association.
Writing a paper for scientific topics is much different than writing for English, literature, and other composition classes. Science papers are much more direct, clear, and concise. This section includes key suggestions, explains how to write in APA format, and includes other tidbits to keep in mind while formulating your research paper. Research experiments and observations rely on the creation and analysis of data to test hypotheses and come to conclusions.
While sharing and explaining the methods and results of studies, science writers often use verbs. Further details are in the publication manual p. We tested the solution to identify the possible contaminants. Researchers often test solutions by placing them under a microscope. Notice that the first sentence is in the past tense while the second sentence is in the present tense. This can be confusing for readers.
Our APA formatter creates your references in just a few clicks. APA citation format is easier than you think thanks to our innovative, automatic tool. Even though your writing will not have the same fluff and detail as other forms of writing, it should not be boring or dull to read. The Publication Manual suggests thinking about who will be the main reader of your work and to write in a way that educates them.
The American Psychological Association strongly objects to any bias towards gender, racial groups, ages of individuals or subjects, disabilities, and sexual orientation pp. Thanks to helpful tools and features, such as the spell checker, in word processing programs, most of us think we have everything we need right in our document. However, quite a few helpful features are found elsewhere.
Where can you find a full grammar editor? Right here, on EasyBib. The EasyBib Plus paper checker scans your paper for spelling, but also for any conjunction , determiner, or adverb out of place. Try it out and unlock the magic of an edited paper. Abbreviations can be tricky. Readers need to pause and comprehend the meaning of abbreviations and quite often stumble over them. The manual recommends using one space after most punctuation marks, including punctuation at the end of a sentence p.
The official APA format book was primarily created to aid individuals with submitting their paper for publication in a professional journal. Many schools adopt certain parts of the handbook and modify sections to match their preference.
To see an example of an APA format research paper, with the spacing we believe is most commonly and acceptable to use, scroll down and see section D. Example of APA format for commas: The medication caused drowsiness, upset stomach, and fatigue.
When writing a possessive singular noun, you should place the apostrophe before the s. For possessive plural nouns, the apostrophe is placed after the s. Em dashes long dash are used to bring focus to a particular point or an aside. There are no spaces after these dashes p. Use en dashes short dash in compound adjectives. Do not place a space before or after the dash.
Here are a few examples:. Science papers often include the use of numbers, usually displayed in data, tables, and experiment information. The golden rule to keep in mind is that numbers less than 10 are written out in text. If the number is more than 10, use numerals. Need help with other writing topics? Our plagiarism checker is a great resource for anyone looking for writing help. Say goodbye to an out of place noun , preposition , or adjective, and hello to a fully edited paper. Not doing so can be considered plagiarism , possibly leading to a failed grade or loss of a job.
APA style is one of the most commonly used citation styles used to prevent plagiarism. References are placed on the final page of a research project. These are found within your paper, anytime a quote or paraphrase is included. They usually only include the name of the author and the date the source was published.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is even discussed in the book, The Emperor of Any Place. A writer must use both types in a paper. If you cite something in the text, it must have a full reference on the final page of the project. Where there is one, there must be the other! Middle initial. Year published. Title of source.
For more information on APA format for sources and how to reference specific types of sources, use the other guides on EasyBib. Looking for a full visual of a page of references? Scroll down and take a peek at our APA format essay example towards the bottom of this page.
Did you find the perfect quote or piece of information to include in your project? Way to go! Displaying where the original information came from is much easier than you think. This allows the reader of your work to see where the information originated. APA allows for the use of two different forms of in-text citation, parenthetical and narrative Both forms of citation require two elements:.
Parenthetical citations are the more commonly seen form of in-text citations for academic work, in which both required reference elements are presented at the end of the sentence in parentheses. Narrative citations allow the author to present one or both of the required reference elements inside of the running sentence, which prevents the text from being too repetitive or burdensome.
When only one of the two reference elements is included in the sentence, the other is provided parenthetically. According to Belafonte , Harlem was full of artists and musicians in the late s. If there are two authors listed in the source entry, then the parenthetical reference must list them both:.
There is also more information in the official manual in chapter 8. You might want to also check out his guide on parenthetical citing. Would you benefit from having a tool that helps you easily generate citations that are in the text? Check out EasyBib Plus! An APA format reference page is easier to create than you probably think.
We go into detail on how to create this page on our APA reference page. Here are some pointers to keep in mind when it comes to the references page in APA format:. Try it out! Prior to submitting your paper, check to make sure you have everything you need and everything in its place:. Congratulations for making it this far! Can we offer one last suggestion?
We promise it will only take a minute. Copy and paste or upload your paper into our checker. If it sounds too good to be true, then head on over to our innovative tool and give it a whirl. Information on how to cite sources can be found on our APA citation page. However, this page is not associated with the association. What are behavioral sciences? Behavioral sciences study human and animal behavior. They can include:. What are social sciences?
Social sciences focus on one specific aspect of human behavior, specifically social and cultural relationships. Social sciences can include:. This citation style was created by the American Psychological Association. Its rules and guidelines can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The information provided in the guide above follows the 6th edition of the manual. The 7th edition was published in and is the most recent version. The 7th edition of the Publication Manual is in full color and includes 12 sections compared to 8 sections in the 6th edition.
In general, this new edition differentiates between professional and student papers, includes guidance with accessibility in mind, provides new examples to follow, and has updated guidelines. New citing information. There is new guidance on citing classroom or intranet resources, and oral traditions or traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples.
Visit our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates. American Psychological Association. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed. Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau.
Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing. Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style. Get Started. Certain features require a modern browser to function. Please use a different browser, like Firefox , Chrome , or Safari. Table of Contents Citation Generator.
Empirical studies Empirical studies take data from observations and experiments to generate research reports. Methodological articles These articles showcase new advances, or modifications to an existing practice, in a scientific method or procedure. Case studies Case studies present information related an individual, group, or larger set of individuals. Here are key guidelines to developing your title page: The title of the paper should capture the main idea of the essay, but should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose.
Center the title on the page and place it about lines from the top. The title should be bolded, in title case, and the same font size as your other page text. Do not underline or italicize the title. Other text on the page should be plain not bolded , underlined, or italicized. All text on the title page should be double-spaced. The APA format examples paper below displays proper spacing, so go take a look!
The institutional affiliation is the school the author attends or the location where the author conducted the research. Sample of an APA format title page for a student paper: Sample of title page for a professional paper:. Here are some helpful suggestions to create a dynamic abstract: Abstracts are found on their own page, directly after the title or cover page.
Professional papers only not student papers : Include the running head on the top of the page. On the following line, write a summary of the key points of your research. Your abstract summary is a way to introduce readers to your research topic, the questions that will be answered, the process you took, and any findings or conclusions you drew.
Use concise, brief, informative language. You only have a few sentences to share the summary of your entire document, so be direct with your wording. This summary should not be indented, but should be double-spaced and less than words. If applicable, help researchers find your work in databases by listing keywords from your paper after your summary.
To do this, indent and type Keywords : in italics. Then list your keywords that stand out in your research. You can also include keyword strings that you think readers will type into the search box. Use an active voice, not a passive voice. When writing with an active voice, the subject performs the action. When writing with a passive voice, the subject receives the action.
Active voice: The subjects reacted to the medication. Passive voice: There was a reaction from the subjects taking the medication. Instead of evaluating your project in the abstract, simply report what it contains.
View our in-depth APA Abstract guide. Most papers follow this format: At the top of the page, add the page number in the upper right corner of all pages, including the title page. On the next line write the title in bold font and center it.
Do not underline or italicize it. Begin with the introduction and indent the first line of the paragraph. All paragraphs in the body are indented. The heading title should be in capital letters. The abstract page should be page 2. The introduction presents the problem and premise upon which the research was based.
It goes into more detail about this problem than the abstract. Begin a new section with the Method and use this word as the subtitle. Bold and center this subtitle. The Method section shows how the study was run and conducted.
Be sure to describe the methods through which data was collected. Begin a new section with the Results. The Results section summarizes your data. Use charts and graphs to display this data. Begin a new section with the Discussion. This Discussion section is a chance to analyze and interpret your results.
Draw conclusions and support how your data led to these conclusions. Discuss whether or not your hypothesis was confirmed or not supported by your results. Determine the limitations of the study and next steps to improve research for future studies. Sample body for a professional paper:.
In APA format, there are five levels of headings, each with a different formatting: Level 1: This is the title of your paper The title should be centered in the middle of the page The title should be bolded Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary called title capitalization Level 2: Place this heading against the left margin Use bold letters Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary Level 3: Place this heading against the left side margin Use bold letters Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary End the heading with a period Level 4: Indented in from the left margin Bolded Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary End the heading with a period Level 5: Indented Bolded Italicized Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary End the heading with a period Following general formatting rules, all headings are double spaced and there are no extra lines or spaces between sections.
Here is a visual APA format template for levels of headings:. The first graphic, labeled as 1, should be the first one mentioned in the text. Follow them in the appropriate numerical order in which they appear in the text of your paper. Example : Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Figure 3. Example: Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Figure 3 Only use graphics if they will supplement the material in your text. If they reinstate what you already have in your text, then it is not necessary to include a graphic.
Include enough wording in the graphic so that the reader is able to understand its meaning, even if it is isolated from the corresponding text. However, do not go overboard with adding a ton of wording in your graphic. Tables: Is there anything better than seeing a neatly organized data table? General format of a table should be: Table number Title Table Note Here are a few pointers to keep in mind: Choose to type out your data OR create a table.
Choose one or the other. If you choose to create a table, discuss it very briefly in the text. Table 1 is the first table discussed in the paper. Table 2 is the next table mentioned, and so on. This should be in bold.
Add a title under the number. Create a brief, descriptive title. Capitalize the first letter for each important word. Italicize the title and place it under the table number. Formatting: Only use horizontal lines. Limit use of cell shading. Keep the font at point size and use single or double spacing. If you use single spacing in one table, make sure all of the others use single spaces as well.
Keep it consistent.