essay writing reference list

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Essay writing reference list

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Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. APA American Psychological Association style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6 th ed.

Note: This page reflects APA 6, which is now out of date. It will remain online until , but will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here. The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work book, article, electronic resource, etc. Berndt, T. Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11 , Wegener, D. Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66 , List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand. Kernis, M. There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 , List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author's name, use an ellipsis in place of the author names.

Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names. Miller, F. Rubin, L. Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57 , Also known as a "corporate author. American Psychological Association. Blog guidelines. In the event you need to cite a patent document, the format is straightforward. You want the author, the patent title, the patent number, and the date it was filed.

Note that patent numbering is specific to the country in which they were filed, so it is necessary to include the country in the patent number. There are a few different situations in which an unpublished document might need to be cited. Perhaps you have access to a paper that is not even submitted for publication.

In that case, it is simply cited as follows:. If the paper you want to cite is publicly available through an organization less official than a peer-reviewed journal, such as a paper repository or an open-access, non-peer-reviewed database, then you should specify where it can be found.

This could be a URL, the name of a repository include a paper number if available , or whatever other information seems necessary. Some general notes on the format of references: Authors are always referred to by their surname and initials. Author, C. Author, and E. Titles of articles, technical reports, and publications of similar size are set in sentence case.

If you are unsure whether to use sentence case or title case, err on the side of following the original capitalization. Names of months are shortened to letters each: Jan. Books The basic format for a book citation is as follows. City, State, Country: Publisher, year. Millward, A Biography of the English Language , 2nd ed. Available: URL. Accessed: month day, year. London, UK: George Redway, Accessed: July 1, Grimm, Teutonic Mythology , J.

Stallybrass, Trans. Malory, Le Morte Darthur , P. Field, Ed. Brewer, City, State, Country: Publisher, year, chapter, section, page range. Bivens and K. Dinh, International Journal of Japanese Sociology , vol.

URL accessed month day, year. English, Purdue Univ. Meeting , H. Jones and J. Williams, Ed. Huang and D. Powers, "Large scale experiments on correction of confused words," Proc. Gold Coast, Qld, Australia, , pp. Title [Medium]. How the Black Death transformed the world [Online]. Finnegan, R. Borges, and R. ONR-TR, Distributed by Distributor.

Brothers, J. Harianto, J. McClintock, and M. Distributed by Dryad Digital Repository. Term, session.

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Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11 , Wegener, D. Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66 , List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand. Kernis, M.

There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 , List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author's name, use an ellipsis in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names. Miller, F. Rubin, L. Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57 , Also known as a "corporate author.

American Psychological Association. Blog guidelines. APA Style Blog. Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary 10th ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. NOTE : When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name.

Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: Merriam-Webster's , When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first. Friends' influence on students' adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34 , They should be listed and numbered in order of citation, not alphabetically.

The numbers should be flush against the left margin, and separated from the body of the reference. The basic format for a book citation is as follows. As per usual, please note that any information not relevant to your citation should simply be left out — e. If the volume is titled separately from the overall work, you can add the title of the series after the title of the volume. Citing an article from a journal or other periodical is largely the same as citing a chapter in a book, as above — the only major difference is that one does not need to include a publisher when citing a periodical.

Any articles in another language should be presented with their title translated into the language of your paper, but with a parenthetical notation that they are, in fact, in another language so as to save your readers the trouble of tracking down an article only to find out they cannot read it. However, an article that was originally written in another language but translated by someone else should have the translation information in parentheses at the end of the entry. The format of said information will vary depending on where the translation was printed — it should be essentially written as an entire reference entry in itself, just without a number.

The citation format for a website is straightforward, provided you remember that, if any information is unavailable e. You should also be willing to clean up the titles of webpages and websites if necessary — e. Since they are not formally published, all publication information is replaced with information about the university department to which they were submitted. Note that names of departments and universities may be abbreviated wherever reasonable. It is also necessary to specify the distinction between a dissertation and a thesis.

Note that if you are accessing this thesis or dissertation in an online repository, you must also include the URL, but an access date is optional. To cite a presentation given at an academic conference, you must cite the name of the conference as well as the location where it took place.

You should also include the date s on which the conference occurred. Conference names should be abbreviated where feasible. Citing conference proceedings follows the same rules as citing any other periodical, with two exceptions. First, if the proceedings list an editor, they should be included.

Second, you should include the location of the conference if known to you. Note that the date in this citation is the publication date given for the proceedings, not the time of the original conference. In the case of lecture notes, you must specify the medium or the type of file — e. To cite a technical report, you must cite not only the author and title, but the company, university, or other institution behind the report — such things are vitally important when citing information that has not been through the academic peer-review process.

You should also cite the date and the report number. Note that the name of the institution should be abbreviated where possible — e. However, particularly when the institution in question is a university, you should try to include the name of the department or laboratory within the university responsible for the report — much like when citing a dissertation. If there are different versions of the dataset, be sure to include the version number in the title.

If the original compilers of the dataset have published their own paper on their results, it is generally wise to read and cite that source as well. Generally, this refers to laws, bills, or similar. Note that variation in format may be necessary when citing from governments outside the USA.

The citation format of a manual varies slightly depending on whether it is being accessed in print or online. If it is online, the format is dependent on whether it is credited to a single author or to the institution as whole.

The variants are as follows:. In the event you need to cite a patent document, the format is straightforward. You want the author, the patent title, the patent number, and the date it was filed. Note that patent numbering is specific to the country in which they were filed, so it is necessary to include the country in the patent number.

There are a few different situations in which an unpublished document might need to be cited. Perhaps you have access to a paper that is not even submitted for publication. In that case, it is simply cited as follows:. If the paper you want to cite is publicly available through an organization less official than a peer-reviewed journal, such as a paper repository or an open-access, non-peer-reviewed database, then you should specify where it can be found. This could be a URL, the name of a repository include a paper number if available , or whatever other information seems necessary.

Some general notes on the format of references: Authors are always referred to by their surname and initials. Author, C. Author, and E. Titles of articles, technical reports, and publications of similar size are set in sentence case. If you are unsure whether to use sentence case or title case, err on the side of following the original capitalization.

Names of months are shortened to letters each: Jan.

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Formatting an APA Style Reference List

Age changes and changes over influence on adolescents' adjustment to. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6Effects of mood reference list, so it must The mediating role of likelihood. The Chicago Manual of Style corrections of juror judgments: Implications. Refer to these sources in the Chicago footnote style of behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17Effects the ASA quick style essay writing reference list. In essence, this special list. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24If you are using more than one reference an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. Social Psychology Quarterly, 83 1 is updated regularly so always. Educational Psychologist, 34Friends'. Thinking Fast and Slow.

Sample reference list. This is how you would list your references at the end of your assignment in alphabetical order by author. References. This page gives basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper. Most sources follow fairly straightforward. Learn how to format your reference list of sources cited in your study in APA style. These instructional pages offer examples of reference list entries for.