Battiato and Joan Walker and Richard P. Reed and J. Dejong and K. Hoover-dempsey , Angela C. Jones Published Psychology Educational Psychologist The article reviews research on parental involvement in student homework. It is focused on understanding: why parents become involved in their children's homework; which activities and strategies they employ in the course of involvement; how their homework involvement influences student outcomes; and which student outcomes are influenced by parents' involvement.
Findings suggest that parents involve themselves in student homework because they believe that they should be involved, believe that… Expand. Save to Library Save. Create Alert Alert. Launch Research Feed Feed. Share This Paper.
Background Citations. Methods Citations. Results Citations. Citation Type. Has PDF. Publication Type. More Filters. Parents' conceptions of their homework involvement in elementary school. View 3 excerpts, cites results and background. Research Feed. A Review of the Literature. In sum, the intercorrelations revealed that our research variables are related to each other in the expected way.
In order to draw further conclusions about their relationship and answer our research questions, we estimated regression analyses and a structural equation model to predict parental homework involvement, school achievement, and well-being, as well as to test the mediating role of parental homework involvement for the potential association between EFSC and our outcome variables. The results are shown in Table 3 , model 1. Hence, according to their parents, students whose parents are autonomy- and competence-supportive during homework completion feel more well at school and home and achieve better results in mathematics and language compared to other students.
Table 3. Associations among effective family-school communication, parental homework involvement, well-being at school, well-being at home, mathematics achievement, and language achievement after controlling for child gender and parental SES. The next section presents the findings of regression analyses to empirically test the assumed relationships between EFSC and the other variables of this study.
Table 3 , model 2, shows the results for the prediction of parental homework involvement, well-being at school and home, as well as achievement in mathematics and language. Thus, parents whose children visit schools with a well-functioning EFSC reported being more autonomy- and competence-supportive during homework completion. The last two columns in Table 3 present the results for the prediction of mathematics and language achievement.
In sum, the study provided first evidence for the German context that EFSC may improve the quality of parental homework support in terms of autonomy and competence support. In order to gain deeper insights into the mechanisms of the relationships found in the previous section, our third research question concerned the mediating role of parental homework involvement in the relationship between EFSC and well-being as well as school achievement.
Figure 1 shows the results of a structural equation model. For the sake of easier readability, only significant pathways are shown. Figure 1. For reasons of simplification, only significant path coefficients are shown.
These relationships were no longer statistically significant. In addition to the direct effects, indirect effects of the predictor EFSC on well-being and achievement as mediated by parental homework support were examined. The inclusion of the mediator variables partly led to different regression coefficients for EFSC, indicating the mediating role of parental homework involvement.
Because the link between parental homework involvement and well-being at school was not found, the indirect effect was not examined. Together, the results demonstrated that the quality of parental homework support fully mediated the relations of EFSC with well-being at home and language achievement, while it partially mediated the relations of EFSC with mathematics achievement.
The primary aim of the present study was to analyze predictors and consequences of high-quality parental homework involvement. The participants of the study were parents of primary and secondary school students in Germany who participated in an online survey. Three research questions were addressed. Our first research question addressed the role of parental homework involvement.
With respect to the SDT, parental homework involvement was operationalized as autonomy- and competence-supportive. Based on regression analyses, we tested the relationship between parental homework involvement and four different student outcomes: well-being at school, well-being at home, mathematics achievement, and language achievement. Our third research question concerned the mediating role of parental homework involvement for the relationship between EFSC and the four student outcomes.
This result supports the results of earlier studies concluding that the effectiveness of parental homework involvement depends on its quality e. Past research has suggested that the quantity of parental involvement in schooling is beneficial for different student outcomes e.
Using a recently developed instrument to assess parental perceptions of EFSC, our second research question focused on the relationship between EFSC and parental homework involvement and the four student outcomes. Our results of regression analyses provided evidence for the predictive power of EFSC for the quality of parental homework involvement and all four different student outcomes. Our results added to this model in the sense that EFSC — which might function as a reason to become involved — predicts the quality of parental involvement in schooling.
Our study extends previous research on the model as it considers the need to distinguish between the quantity and quality of involvement. To our knowledge, our study is the first to provide evidence of the predictive power of EFSC for high-quality parental homework involvement. Contrary to our results, Yotyodying and Wild found teacher invitations to be related with the amount of parental home-based involvement but not with differences in the quality of home-based involvement.
In their study, the authors asked parents to rate the extent to which they perceive that their school involvement is expected and requested. In the present study, parents were asked to rate an EFSC in a way that a regular and event-independent information exchange exists, that the schools and teachers use various forms of communication and that information about school transitions is provided.
An EFSC might not only act as an invitation to help but it also possibly provides parents with information concerning how to help their children in school-related topics. In addition, our results indicated that EFSC positively contributed to all four student outcomes. In order to address our third research question, we examined the mediating role of the quality of parental homework involvement.
The results of the present study thus highlight the role of EFSC as a key performance factor that helps to improve the quality of parental homework involvement, thereby promoting student outcomes. In addition, our findings on the crucial mediating role of parental homework involvement in the associations between EFSC and well-being at home and school achievement were in line with the assumptions of self-determination theory SDT: Deci and Ryan, , Accordingly, the parental provision of autonomy and competence support tend to satisfy the basic needs of their children autonomy and competence , and in turn it might thus result in improved well-being.
Indeed, earlier studies Chirkov and Ryan, ; Niemiec et al. Our results suggest that an EFSC results in a higher quality of parental homework involvement in terms of autonomy and competence support , which in turn leads to increased well-being at home compared to other children.
Hence, EFSC results in high-quality parental homework involvement and is in turn related to achievement. Recent studies have shown that strong family-school partnerships FSPs may help to improve parental involvement. From a scientific view, the findings of the present study supplement this research in two aspects: first, to our best knowledge, to date only little is known about the relationship between FSP and parental homework involvement. We were able to confirm that EFSC as an indicator of FSP may help to improve the quality of parental involvement at home, which in turn supports well-being and school achievement of students.
We have been able to show that German parents evaluate the communication between families and schools positively. However, according to Hoover-Dempsey and Walker , various barriers might hinder well-functioning FSP such as parents having a low level of education, inflexible working hours, or low language skills. For schools, structural elements such as personnel resources influence FSP. Hence, our results of the present study hold strong importance for different groups. Administrators may use our results to implement teacher and parent training programs aiming to promote the awareness of teachers and parents about the consequences of parental involvement.
Such programs should accentuate the need to become involved in an autonomy- and competence-supportive manner, as this study and recent studies Knollmann and Wild, a , b ; Dumont et al. Hence, teachers should not only learn how to encourage parents to become highly involved; moreover, they should also learn how to assist parents to be more autonomy- and competence-supportive during homework completion.
First, the generalization of our results is limited due to different attributes of the sample. All analyses were based on parental self-reports. Future studies should assess the study variables by taking other perspectives into account e. In these studies, teachers and school principals should be investigated as an additional source of information on EFSC. Moreover, in order to improve EFSC in the school, there is a need to identify possible barriers from the school e.
Finally, students should rate their well-being in school and at home in future studies. In addition, the generalization of our results is limited due to the high socioeconomic status and the high proportion of mothers in our sample. In our study, the socioeconomic status was not related with parental homework involvement.
However, previous studies suggest that high-SES parents tend to be more involved in schooling than other parents. Compared with low-SES parents, their higher education might be associated with feelings of being competent to help leading in higher amounts of involvement Lee and Bowen, In the present study, the participants reported on average a comparatively high socioeconomic status.
Future studies should take this limitation of the analyzed sample into account and investigate a more representative sample of parents. In future studies, also children with different achievement levels should be considered, as parents of low achieving children or children with special needs might employ other parenting strategies in face of difficulties in school.
For these parents and their children, strong FSP might be particularly important. In Germany, cooperation between schools and parents often takes place in the form of short meetings during parent-teacher conferences in school Sacher, Second, no conclusions on the causality could be drawn due to a cross-sectional research design.
Hence, a longitudinal research design should be employed in future studies. Third, the study has exclusively focused on functional ways of parenting autonomy- and competence-supportive homework involvement , while other parenting styles were not considered here. Finally, future studies should investigate both qualitative and quantitative ways of parental homework involvement to gain deeper insights into the mechanisms and differences between the two dimensions of involvement.
All subjects were parents adults aged above 21 years. Before their participation, all subjects were informed about the research purposes. Also, they were informed that participation in this research is anonymously and voluntarily.
Furthermore, they were informed about the applicable data protection guidelines and the possibility to quit participation whenever they wanted without any disadvantages. Informed consent of the participants was implied through survey completion. SD contributed to the design of the study and the data collection, carried out the analyses and data interpretation, drafted and finalized the manuscript.
SY and KJ contributed to the design of the study, parts of the analyses, and data interpretation and provided input for revisions of the manuscript draft. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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