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More details about margins can be found here. Font options include the following:. We recommend these fonts because they are legible and widely available and because they include special characters such as math symbols and Greek letters. For more details about font click here. Line spacing: In general, double-space all parts of an APA Style paper, including the abstract; text; block quotations; table and figure numbers, titles, and notes; and reference list including between and within entries.
Do not add extra space before or after paragraphs. See exceptions and more details about line spacing here. All new paragraphs in the body of the paper should receive an indention of 0. You may use the tab key after starting each new paragraph for consistency.
For more details on paragraph alignment and indentation, click here. Headings are covered in Sections 2. The following table demonstrates how to format headings in APA Style. Text begins as a new paragraph. Text begins on the same line and continues as a regular paragraph. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge.
If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. APA 7th ed. This guide aims to highlight major changes regarding citations in the new edition, and include citations specifically focused toward students using APA. Getting Started with the 7th ed. Title Page Title page setup is covered in Section 2. Page Header Page headers are covered in Section 2. For student papers, the page header consists of the page number only. For professional papers, the page header consists of the page number and running head.
Page Numbers Follow these guidelines to include page numbers in both student and professional APA Style papers: Use the page-numbering function of your word-processing program to insert page numbers. Insert page numbers in the top right corner. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure.
Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption e. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. In-Text Citations: see pp. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way:.
Snow as cited in Milgram, argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts The reference for the Milgram article but not the Snow reference should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper. Writing Center.
Writing Resources. Additional Navigation About Us. Tutoring Services Tutors. Seven Sins of Writing Passive Voice. Incorrect Punctuation of Two Independent Clauses. Misuse of the Apostrophe. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers. Pronoun Problems. The Dreaded Pet Peeves. Faculty Resources. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections.
Title page see sample on p. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript. Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page.
Abstract labeled, centered, not bold No more than words, one paragraph, block format i. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model.
One way to begin but not the only way is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when.
Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary.
DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources see APA manual. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor.
Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. Method labeled, centered, bold The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. How were the participants recruited?
Were they compensated for their time in any way? Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. Materials labeled, flush left, bold Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was e. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here.
Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. Procedure labeled, flush left, bold What did participants do, and in what order? Results labeled, centered, bold In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis.
Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. Report exact p values to two or three decimal places e. However, for p-values less than. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding s in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis e. This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers within the same paragraph.
Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper e. Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure.
Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. Discussion labeled, centered, bold The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings using words, not numbers.
Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings.
Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. What are the limitations of the study? Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below.
What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it?
How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior?