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Cave bat thesis

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The matrix community temperature presented an observed temperature Filled squares shows the presence of a given species in each cave. The matrix community temperature was Finally, we collected 15 specimens, representing 9 species sampled through the captures, as evidence material and deposited in the Mammal Collection Prof. These nine species included D.

This study is the first to provide details about the diversity, assemblages and colony sizes of the cave bats of the state of RN. The record of F. All bat species reported in those studies were found in the present study. Table 2. Aerial insectivorous bats were also common members and were found in all the surveyed caves Table 2. Such bat composition patterns seem to be common in Brazilian cave bat assemblages Trajano Table 3 Studies on cave bat assemblages in karstic areas and cave systems in Brazil.

For each cave system is presented data on: locality and state; ecoregions that corresponds to Amazon Am , Atlantic Forest AF , Cerrado Ce and Caatinga Caa ; richness of bat species per locality; sampling effort that corresponds to number of sampled caves in each locality; and studies references. Nevertheless, studies and inventories on cave-dwelling bats in multiple caves at karstic areas in Brazil are scarce, considering the large number of underground cavities registered in the country Janzen et al.

Additionally, the abovementioned studies contain differences with our study, as they have differentiated sampling efforts and number of sampled caves Table 3. Thus, our comparison across studies is in a general perspective. Regarding the Caatinga, it is noteworthy that the set of studies on its cave bat assemblages, including ours, have minimally sampled the totality of the underground cavities in such an ecoregion.

This measure of structure in ecological systems in the Neotropics regarding cave bats has been poorly explored and is difficult to determine if nested or non-nested patterns are common in these assemblages. Given the high number of caves in the state, we encourage the bat inventories in more caves in the state, to verify if the cave bat assemblages in the region follow a nested pattern or remain non-nested.

In RN, underground cavities suffer from illegal mining, exploration and extraction of oil petroleum , unorganized rural settlements, agriculture expansion, and disorderly cave visitation that causes negative effects on the rich cave fauna of the state Cruz et al. Such caves presented unique bat assemblages by harboring vulnerable species and large uncommon colonies that were not recorded in the FFNP or any other cave under protection. Therefore, their conservation panorama is of concern.

The bat community in this cave is particular, is intensively used by colonies of the nectarivores Glossophaga soricina and Lonchophylla mordax Table 2. Such colonies are likely providing a valuable ecological service in the area since nectar-eating bats are important pollinators of plants of economic and ecological importance in semi-arid environments e.

Moreover, the cave roosts vulnerable species like Natalus macrourus and the near threatened L. The cave is located about 1 km from the Felipe Guerra town and contains three year-round water pools visited by the residents on weekends, according to the local consulted people. Even though the cave is not intensively used by bats, it had a relatively high richness Table 2 and harbored the only known colony in the state of L. We encourage a deeper monitoring of L.

From the cave system perspective, it is evident that bat diversity of the FGCS is under no current protection. It harbors colonies of three national vulnerable species of bats F. Bats that roost in hot caves e. Furthermore, the presence of the colony in the area is likely to provide benefit to local agricultural activities, given aerial insectivore bats are known to be important controllers of arthropod populations including those considered as crop pests Boyles et al.

Efforts to establish a conservation unit in the FGCS are ongoing. Given that the cave bat assemblages in RN presented a non-nested pattern, the future conservation strategies in the area should contemplate the protection of multiple caves. Such an approach is necessary because the protection of solely the richest species caves will not fully include the totality of the bat species, including vulnerable species, in the cave system. However, a more deeply and multidisciplinary approach for the prioritization of cave protection in FGCS in needed urgently, given the chiropterological and speleological relevance that the cave system possesses.

We expect that the caves discussed as conservation concerns in this study will be considered for future conservation actions. We found at the FFNP an important cave bat fauna integrally protected. According to our data, the park contains the cave with the highest richness of cave bats in the state—the Furna Feia cave—with 10 recorded species including the biggest known colony of P.

Besides harboring the richest diversity of bats in a single cave, the Furna Feia cave has a potential use as a tourist attraction, due to its large size Table 1 and scenic beauty. Moreover, the national park also harbors vulnerable species, such as F. Being the only national park in RN, the park protects underground cavities, a significant number for the integral conservation of the speleological heritage in the state Bento et al.

This study provided the first step to unravel the great diversity of cave bats in RN. We encourage the exploration of more caves for bat inventories and, furthermore, the mid- and long-term monitoring of the caves presented herein, to understand the ecological dynamics of the bat assemblages in response to the seasonality of the Caatinga. If this is done, it will be possible to generate more accurate data, enabling better conservation actions for the cave bats in the state.

To WCS Brazil for the key support in field logistics. Arita, H. Conservation biology of the cave bats of Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy The conservation of cave bats of Yucatan, Mexico. Biological Conservation Atmar, W. The nestedness temperature calculator: a visual basic program, including presence—absence matrices.

Bento, D. Dos Santos, J. Freitas, U. Parque Nacional da Furna Feia: o parque nacional com a maior quantidade de cavernas do brasil. Morato, eds. Anais do 33vo Congresso Brasileiro de Espeleologia M. Sallun-Filho, eds. Bernard, E. Discovering the Brazilian bat fauna: A task for two centuries? Mammal Review Vieira, eds. Boyles, J. Cryan, G. Economic importance of bats in agriculture. Science Bredt, A. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia Cajaiba, R. Campanha, R.

Roosting assemblages of bats in arenitic caves in remnant fragments of Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil. Biotropica Master thesis. Coelho, D. Cruz, D. Bento, U. Freitas, eds. Cruz, J. Bento, F. Bezerra, J. Revista Brasileira de Espeleologia Felix, S.

Novaes, R. Bat assemblage in a karstic area from northern Brazil: seven new occurrences for Tocantins state, including the first record of Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas, for the Cerrado. Check List Ferreira, R. Prous, L. Furey, N. Conservation ecology of cave bats. Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of bats in a changing world C. Springer, New York. Gardner, A. Mammals of South America, volume 1: marsupials, xenarthrans, shrews, and bats Vol. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Gnaspini, P.

Guano communities in tropical caves. Ecosystems of the World. Ecosystems of the world. Subterranean ecosystems H. Wilkens, D. Humphreys, eds. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Gotelli, N. Swap algorithms in null model analysis. Ecology Gregorin, R. Chiroptera Neotropical Hill, J. Bats: a natural history. University of Texas Press, Austin. Humphrey, S. Nursery roosts and community diversity of Nearctic bats. Version —3. Jansen, D.

Kalka, M. Bats limit arthropods and herbivory in a tropical forest. Kunz, T. Roosting ecology of bats. Ecology of bats T. Kunz, eds. Betke, N. Methods for assessing colony size, population size, and relative abundance of bats. Ecological and behavioral methods for the study of bats T. Parsons, eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Braun De Torrez, D. Bauer, T. Ecosystem services provided by bats. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Ladle, R.

Firmino, A. Unexplored diversity and conservation potential of Neotropical hot caves. Conservation Biology Leal, I. Da Silva, M. Cardoso, M.

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In any case, it is available today. Next they used metagenomic sequencing to decipher its genome Zhou et al. Additionally, there are now powerful methods for retrieving degraded and low abundance genetic material, even from biological samples millions of years old e. Dabney et al. In the Spanish Flu influenza genome was reconstructed from preserved human tissues Taubenberger et al. If necessary, such methods could surely be applied to any of the extant samples from the miners.

What dates were they taken on and which miners did each come from? According to both theses, such samples were sometimes sent to other institutions. In many cases, these samples probably represent better opportunities to collect a coronavirus and demonstrate a virus spillover than does a serum sample. Did the WIV receive or request other samples?

Were tests performed on them? If so, what were the results? Answers, one hopes, along with data to support them, will perhaps be provided in a second addendum. Moreover, two of these sources predate the pandemic. Unlike the WIV authors, no case can reasonably be made that the two thesis authors were motivated by self-preservation as a consequence of the pandemic. The WIV authors, in contrast, have a track record of misleading statements and clear omissions in connection with the miners outbreak and RaTG13; hence the need for the original addendum.

The Canping Huang PhD contains other data and important statements. Together with a team assembled by the Chinese CDC, he searched the Mojiang mine specifically for viruses. In all, at least four independent teams of Chinese virologists some representing multiple labs searched the Mojiang mine. They identified a paramyxovirus in rats from the mine Wu et al. The third team was a group from the University of Hong Kong who found Alphacoronaviruses in the mine Lau et al. The fourth was Canping Huang in This intense sampling activity shows that prominent Chinese researchers like George Gao suspected that the causative agent of the mine outbreak was a virus, and were still hunting for clues in However, it should be emphasized that, once again, this mention of a fungal origin by the WHO is not supported by any data or cited evidence.

Nor is there any suggestion that fungal biologists investigated the outbreak. The case for a fungal outbreak is therefore very weak. This indicates that bats with coronaviruses continued to be present in the mine in , two years after the outbreak. More importantly, his use of degenerate i. According to the PhD:. The blood samples of four of the cases, and from four other people who had been to the cave yet had no symptoms, all showed no abnormal results Guangdong, lab of Nan Shan Zhong ; The bats in the mine were dissected, and bat feces were tested, and no abnormality was found Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences ……Half a year later, the Jin Qi lab went to the same cave to collect samples from bats and wild rats and tested for pathogens.

A lethal disease outbreak originating from bats with a probable viral aetiology is not an everyday occurrence. We are nevertheless left with a mystery, which the Canping Huang thesis deepens considerably. Why, given this strong interest, were only two quite minor scientific papers ever published that mentioned the mine, of which only one mentioned the outbreak Wu et al.

Especially since no alternative cause for the outbreak was found. Ever since the first SARS outbreak, Chinese virologists have very actively searched for potential human zoonotic pathogens, especially coronaviruses e. Lau et al. This programme was established in , the year of the mine outbreak, and included Zheng-li Shi as one of its principle investigators. There are strong signs that plenty of this emerging infectious coronavirus research remains unpublished, even those parts that are highly connected to the origins of the pandemic.

For example, Chapter 3. Though he identified two Alphacoronaviruses in the Mojiang mine and obtained partial genome sequences, he did not show them. They are not in the thesis itself nor does he seem to have deposited them in any public database. A key example is that Zheng-li Shi also possesses unpublished coronavirus genomes from the mine.

These include at least eight other very closely related Betacoronaviruses that she has featured in several recent oral presentations and for which she has at least partial genome sequences. The information contained in these genomes would doubtless be extremely valuable for understanding the ancestry of SARS-CoV It is therefore remarkable that they remain unpublished over a year after the Wuhan outbreak.

The only publicly available information on this virus is a short fragment deposited in a database five years ago. Adding to this list of unpublished research is a very interesting recent preprint by a group of independent researchers. These genomes were uncovered by examining Chinese sequencing datasets mostly originating in Wuhan uploaded to the NCBI genome repository.

These datasets were then searched by the authors for coronavirus sequence contamination. Coronavirus sequence reads found in these datasets were then assembled by the researchers into whole or partial coronavirus genomes. What such searches reveal are either instances of biological contamination e. Among the findings made by these researchers were a full-length novel HKU5-related coronavirus and an apparent full-length infectious clone of a novel HKU4-related coronavirus.

These are both MERS-related coronaviruses. These were not the only coronaviruses they found and therefore what the data suggests is that, in China, numerous labs are isolating, culturing, or otherwise studying unpublished coronaviruses. These examples of unpublished viruses may only be the tip of an iceberg. These are where unpublished viral sequences from the WIV and elsewhere were stored.

This letter in particular requests access to virus samples held by them and especially those samples related to the Mojiang mine at the time of the outbreak see Fig. Fig 5. The EcoHealth Alliance has had funding and active working relationships with coronavirus researchers at the WIV for over a decade. Given the obstructive role it played in resisting investigations of laboratory origins, any effort to get answers from the EcoHealth Alliance deserves wide support. The Congressional letter is constructive in that it combines a precise focus on the key scientific data gaps with a broad view of accountability.

In the final analysis, exactly who might have spilled the SARS-CoV-2 virus is not necessarily more important to know than who funded them and who conceived and instigated the research. This in turn serves to underline the obvious inconsistencies and omissions of Zhou et al. These flaws make the likelihood that the Mojiang mine played a key role in the COVID outbreak seem ever more plausible and the need to obtain samples and sequences still more urgent. All origin possibilities should be considered and fully investigated.

But in our view, the Mojiang Miners Passage origin theory is particularly valuable because it is a scientifically testable hypothesis. If a transparent and independent analysis of samples from each of the miners were carried out it should show whether or not they had a coronavirus infection. If present in the samples a coronavirus genome sequence even a quite short fragment would likely definitively prove, or disprove, the theory beyond any reasonable doubt.

According to the WHO origin report , Chinese virologists have scoured the country for bat-derived coronaviruses. But at the same time, the WIV and the EcoHealth Alliance have not shared what is apparently in their own freezers and databases. The obstacle therefore seems not to be one of ability to share data but of willingness. But such obvious reticence carries a risk. The less openness scientists at the WIV and the EcoHealth Alliance show and the more they appear to dodge the key questions, the more the suspicion will unavoidably grow of their collective culpability for whatever really happened in Wuhan in late The authors would like to acknowledge the generous assistance of Francisco A.

Andersen, K. Nature medicine , 26 4 , Dabney, J. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Middle Pleistocene cave bear reconstructed from ultrashort DNA fragments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 39 , Ge, X. Metagenomic analysis of viruses from bat fecal samples reveals many novel viruses in insectivorous bats in China.

Journal of virology , 86 8 , Coexistence of multiple coronaviruses in several bat colonies in an abandoned mineshaft. Virologica Sinica , 31 1 , Huang, C. A bat-derived putative cross-family recombinant coronavirus with a reovirus gene. PLoS pathogens , 12 9 , e Kaina, B.

Latinne, A. Origin and cross-species transmission of bat coronaviruses in China. Lau, S. Journal of virology , 89 20 , Li, C. Liu, Q. Landscape of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in China: impact of ecology, climate, and behavior. Frontiers of medicine , 12 1 , Mazet, J. Joint China-US call for employing a transdisciplinary approach to emerging infectious diseases.

Ecohealth , 12 4 , Rahalkar, M. Frontiers in public health , 8 , Sallard, E. Environmental Chemistry Letters , Segreto, R. BioEssays , Environ Chem Lett Sirotkin, K. BioEssays , 42 10 , Taubenberger, J. Science , , Wu, Z. Novel henipa-like virus, Mojiang paramyxovirus, in rats, China, The rate of social capital can explain the situation, after watching this cycle can involve data collection, such as volume and density.

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Planning and bat cave thesis design will be discussed. Principles and standards for grades geometry representation. This is not inclusive, but rather on. deposition of guano by aggregations of roosting bats is the primary energy source in cave ecosystems. Therefore, the aim of my dissertation is to assess the. SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI CAVES by. Zachary Uriah Roth. A Thesis DESCRIPTIONS OF THE THREE CAVES AND TWO BAT SPECIES. IN THIS STUDY.